Table of Contents
Bone Marrow Research
Volume 2012, Article ID 406796, 18 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/406796
Review Article

Lineage Switching in Acute Leukemias: A Consequence of Stem Cell Plasticity?

1Leukemia Clinic, Mexican Children’s Hospital Federico Gómez, 06720 Mexico City, DF, Mexico
2Oncology Research Unit, Oncology Hospital, Mexican Institute of Social Security, 06720 Mexico City, DF, Mexico
3Medical Sciences Program, National Autonomous University of Mexico, 04510 Mexico City, DF, Mexico

Received 10 March 2012; Accepted 8 May 2012

Academic Editor: Amanda C. LaRue

Copyright © 2012 Elisa Dorantes-Acosta and Rosana Pelayo. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. Pelayo, R. Welner, S. S. Perry et al., “Lymphoid progenitors and primary routes to becoming cells of the immune system,” Current Opinion in Immunology, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 100–107, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. R. Pelayo, K. Miyazaki, J. Huang, K. P. Garrett, D. G. Osmond, and P. W. Kincade, “Cell cycle quiescence of early lymphoid progenitors in adult bone marrow,” Stem Cells, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 2703–2713, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. S. Welner, R. Pelayo, and P. W. Kincade, “Evolving views on the genealogy of B cells,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 95–106, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. E. V. Rothenberg, “T cell lineage commitment: identity and renunciation,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 186, no. 12, pp. 6649–6655, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. H. Xie and S. H. Orkin, “Immunology: changed destiny,” Nature, vol. 449, no. 7161, pp. 410–411, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. Pelayo, J. Hirose, J. Huang et al., “Derivation of 2 categories of plasmacytoid dendritic cells in murine bone marrow,” Blood, vol. 105, no. 11, pp. 4407–4415, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. S. Welner, R. Pelayo, K. P. Garrett et al., “Interferon-producing killer dendritic cells (IKDCs) arise via a unique differentiation pathway from primitive c-kitHiCD62L+ lymphoid progenitors,” Blood, vol. 109, no. 11, pp. 4825–4931, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. H. Iwasaki and K. Akashi, “Hematopoietic developmental pathways: on cellular basis,” Oncogene, vol. 26, no. 47, pp. 6687–6696, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. B. Blom and H. Spits, “Development of human lymphoid cells,” Annual Review of Immunology, vol. 24, pp. 287–320, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Doulatov, F. Notta, E. Laurenti, and J. E. Dick, “Hematopoiesis: a human perspective,” Cell Stem Cell, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 120–136, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  11. S. Doulatov, F. Notta, K. Eppert, L. T. Nguyen, P. S. Ohashi, and J. E. Dick, “Revised map of the human progenitor hierarchy shows the origin of macrophages and dendritic cells in early lymphoid development,” Nature Immunology, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 585–593, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. Y. Baba, R. Pelayo, and P. W. Kincade, “Relationships between hematopoietic stem cells and lymphocyte progenitors,” Trends in Immunology, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 645–649, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. Perez-Vera, A. Reyes-Leon, and E. M. Fuentes-Panana, “Signaling proteins and transcription factors in normal and malignant early B cell development,” Bone Marrow Research, vol. 2011, Article ID 502751, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  14. R. Pelayo, E. Dorantes-Acosta, E. Vadillo, and E. Fuentes-Panana, “From HSC to B-lymphoid cells in normal and malignant hematopoiesis,” in Advances in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Research, R. Pelayo, Ed., InTech, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  15. J. M. Pongubala, D. L. Northrup, D. W. Lancki et al., “Transcription factor EBF restricts alternative lineage options and promotes B cell fate commitment independently of Pax5,” Nature Immunology, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 203–215, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. L. Nutt, B. Heavey, A. G. Rolink, and M. Busslinger, “Commitment to the B-lymphoid lineage depends on the transcription factor Pax5,” Nature, vol. 401, no. 6753, pp. 556–562, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. Cobaleda, W. Jochum, and M. Busslinger, “Conversion of mature B cells into T cells by dedifferentiation to uncommitted progenitors,” Nature, vol. 449, no. 7161, pp. 473–477, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. V. Laiosa, M. Stadtfeld, H. Xie, L. de Andres-Aguayo, and T. Graf, “Reprogramming of committed T cell progenitors to macrophages and dendritic cells by C/EBP alpha and PU.1 transcription factors,” Immunity, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 731–744, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. H. Iwasaki, S. I. Mizuno, Y. Arinobu et al., “The order of expression of transcription factors directs hierarchical specification of hematopoietic lineages,” Genes and Development, vol. 20, no. 21, pp. 3010–3021, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Kondo, D. C. Scherer, T. Miyamoto et al., “Cell-fate conversion of lymphoid-committed progenitors by instructive actions of cytokines,” Nature, vol. 407, no. 6802, pp. 383–386, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. S. Welner, R. Pelayo, Y. Nagai et al., “Lymphoid precursors are directed to produce dendritic cells as a result of TLR9 ligation during herpes infection,” Blood, vol. 112, no. 9, pp. 3753–3761, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. T. Baldridge, K. Y. King, N. C. Boles, D. C. Weksberg, and M. A. Goodell, “Quiescent haematopoietic stem cells are activated by IFN-γ in response to chronic infection,” Nature, vol. 465, no. 7299, pp. 793–797, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. R. Boiko and L. Borghesi, “Hematopoiesis sculpted by pathogens: toll-like receptors and inflammatory mediators directly activate stem cells,” Cytokine, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  24. K. De Luca, V. Frances-Duvert, M. J. Asensio et al., “The TLR1/2 agonist PAM3CSK4 instructs commitment of human hematopoietic stem cells to a myeloid cell fate,” Leukemia, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 2063–2074, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Sioud and Y. Floisand, “TLR agonists induce the differentiation of human bone marrow CD34+ progenitors into CD11c+ CD80/86+ DC capable of inducing a Th1-type response,” European Journal of Immunology, vol. 37, no. 10, pp. 2834–2846, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Y. Nagai, K. P. Garrett, S. Ohta et al., “Toll-like receptors on hematopoietic progenitor cells stimulate innate immune system replenishment,” Immunity, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 801–812, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. G. Heyworth, D. Noack, and A. R. Cross, “Identification of a novel NCF-1 (p47-phox) pseudogene not containing the signature GT deletion: significance for A47 degrees chronic granulomatous disease carrier detection,” Blood, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1845–1851, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. L. Perez-Saldivar, A. Fajardo-Gutiérrez, R. Bernáldez-Ríos et al., “Childhood acute leukemias are frequent in Mexico City: descriptive epidemiology,” British Medical Journal, vol. 11, article 355, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. J. M. Bennett, D. Catovsky, M.-T. Daniel et al., “Proposals for the classification of the acute leukaemias. French-American-British (FAB) co-operative group,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 451–458, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  30. J. M. Bennett, D. Catovsky, M. T. Daniel et al., “Proposed revised criteria for the classification of acute myeloid leukemia. A report of the French-American-British Cooperative Group,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 103, no. 4, pp. 620–625, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. G. Jiang, E. Roman, S. V. Nandula, V. V. S. Murty, G. Bhagat, and B. Alobeid, “Congenital MLL-positive B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) switched lineage at relapse to acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) with persistent t(4;11) and t(1;6) translocations and JH gene rearrangement,” Leukemia and Lymphoma, vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 1223–1227, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. H. Shimizu, S. J. Culbert, A. Cork, and J. J. Iacuone, “A lineage switch in acute monocytic leukemia. A case report,” American Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 162–166, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. Krawczuk-Rybak, J. Zak, and B. Jaworowska, “A lineage switch from AML to ALL with persistent translocation t(4;11) in congenital leukemia,” Medical and Pediatric Oncology, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 95–96, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. A. Ridge, M. E. Cabrera, A. M. Ford et al., “Rapid intraclonal switch of lineage dominance in congenital leukaemia with a MLL gene rearrangement,” Leukemia, vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 2023–2026, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. H. Sakaki, H. Kanegane, K. Nomura et al., “Early lineage switch in an infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia,” International Journal of Hematology, vol. 90, no. 5, pp. 653–655, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. Park, K. N. Koh, B. E. Kim et al., “Lineage switch at relapse of childhood acute leukemia: a report of four cases,” Journal of Korean Medical Science, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 829–831, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. C. Stasik, S. Ganguly, M. T. Cunningham, S. Hagemeister, and D. L. Persons, “Infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia with t(11;16)(q23;p13.3) and lineage switch into acute monoblastic leukemia,” Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics, vol. 168, no. 2, pp. 146–149, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. L. Bernstein, D. W. Esseltine, J. Emond, and M. Vekemans, “Acute lymphoblastic leukemia at relapse in a child with acute myeloblastic leukemia,” American Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 153–157, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. E. Dorantes-Acosta, F. Arreguin-Gonzalez, C. A. Rodriguez-Osorio, S. Sadowinski, R. Pelayo, and A. Medina-Sanson, “Acute myelogenous leukemia switch lineage upon relapse to acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a case report,” Cases Journal, vol. 2, article 154, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. Y. Ikarashi, T. Kakihara, C. Imai, A. Tanaka, A. Watanabe, and M. Uchiyama, “Double leukemias simultaneously showing lymphoblastic leukemia of the bone marrow and monocytic leukemia of the central nervous system,” American Journal of Hematology, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 164–167, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. Emami, Y. Ravindranath, and S. Inoue, “Phenotypic change of acute monocytic leukemia to acute lymphoblastic leukemia on therapy,” American Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 341–343, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. H. J. Chung, C. J. Park, S. Jang, H. S. Chi, E. J. Seo, and J. J. Seo, “A case of lineage switch from acute lymphoblastic leukemia to acute myeloid leukemia,” The Korean Journal of Laboratory Medicine, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 102–105, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. H. Podgornik, M. Debeljak, D. Žontar, P. Černelč, V. V. Prestor, and J. Jazbec, “RUNX1 amplification in lineage conversion of childhood B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia to acute myelogenous leukemia,” Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics, vol. 178, no. 1, pp. 77–81, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. E. Mantadakis, V. Danilatou, E. Stiakaki, G. Paterakis, S. Papadhimitriou, and M. Kalmanti, “T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia relapsing as acute myelogenous leukemia,” Pediatric Blood and Cancer, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 354–357, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. W. van den Ancker, M. Terwijn, J. Regelink et al., “Uncommon lineage switch warrants immunophenotyping even in relapsing leukemia,” Leukemia Research, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. e77–e80, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. W. Vardiman, J. Thiele, D. A. Arber et al., “The 2008 revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia: rationale and important changes,” Blood, vol. 114, no. 5, pp. 937–951, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. C. Bene, G. Castoldi, W. Knapp et al., “Proposals for the immunological classification of acute leukemias,” Leukemia, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 1783–1786, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. E. Matutes, W. F. Pickl, M. V. Veer et al., “Mixed-phenotype acute leukemia: clinical and laboratory features and outcome in 100 patients defined according to the WHO 2008 classification,” Blood, vol. 117, no. 11, pp. 3163–3171, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. K. Akashi, “Lymphoid lineage fate decision of hematopoietic stem cells,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1176, pp. 18–25, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. Bomken, K. Fišer, O. Heidenreich, and J. Vormoor, “Understanding the cancer stem cell,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 103, no. 4, pp. 439–445, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. F. Davi, C. Gocke, S. Smith, and J. Sklar, “Lymphocytic progenitor cell origin and clonal evolution of human B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia,” Blood, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 609–621, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. T. Stankovic, V. Weston, C. M. McConville et al., “Clonal diversity of Ig and T-cell receptor gene rearrangements in childhood B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia,” Leukemia and Lymphoma, vol. 36, no. 3-4, pp. 213–224, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. C. V. Cox, P. Diamanti, R. S. Evely, P. R. Kearns, and A. Blair, “Expression of CD133 on leukemia-initiating cells in childhood ALL,” Blood, vol. 113, no. 14, pp. 3287–3296, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. O. Heidenreich and J. Vormoor, “Malignant stem cells in childhood ALL: the debate continues,” Blood, vol. 113, no. 18, pp. 4476–4477, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  55. C. le Viseur, M. Hotfilder, S. Bomken et al., “In childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, blasts at different stages of immunophenotypic maturation have stem cell properties,” Cancer Cell, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 47–58, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. A. Colmone, M. Amorim, A. L. Pontier, S. Wang, E. Jablonski, and D. A. Sipkins, “Leukemic cells create bone marrow niches that disrupt the behavior of normal hematopoietic progenitor cells,” Science, vol. 322, no. 5909, pp. 1861–1865, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. G. A. Gagnon, C. C. Childs, A. LeMaistre et al., “Molecular heterogeneity in acute leukemia lineage switch,” Blood, vol. 74, no. 6, pp. 2088–2095, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. S. Stass, J. Mirro, and S. Melvin, “Lineage switch in acute leukemia,” Blood, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 701–706, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. O. Imataki, H. Ohnishi, G. Yamaoka et al., “Lineage switch from precursor B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia to acute monocytic leukemia at relapse,” International Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 112–115, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. D. Bresters, A. C. W. Reus, A. J. P. Veerman, E. R. Van Wering, A. Van Der Does-Van Den Berg, and G. J. L. Kaspers, “Congenital leukaemia: the Dutch experience and review of the literature,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 117, no. 3, pp. 513–524, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. C. Fernandez, B. Weiss, S. Atwater, K. Shannon, and K. K. Matthay, “Congenital leukemia: successful treatment of a newborn with t(5;11)(q31;q23),” Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 152–157, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. J. Purizaca, I. Meza, and R. Pelayo, “Early lymphoid development and microenvironmental cues in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia,” Archives of Medical Research, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 89–101, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  63. K. R. Rabin, “Attacking remaining challenges in childhood leukemia,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 366, no. 15, pp. 1445–1446, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  64. M. Schrappe, S. P. Hunger, C.-H. Pui et al., “Outcomes after induction failure in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 366, no. 15, pp. 1371–1381, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  65. C. H. Pui, S. C. Raimondi, and F. G. Behm, “Shifts in blast cell phenotype and karyotype at relapse of childhood lymphoblastic leukemia,” Blood, vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 1306–1310, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. C. Cobaleda, “Reprogramming of B cells,” Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 636, pp. 233–250, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. H. Kawamoto and Y. Katsura, “A new paradigm for hematopoietic cell lineages: revision of the classical concept of the myeloid-lymphoid dichotomy,” Trends in Immunology, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 193–200, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. J. J. Bell and A. Bhandoola, “The earliest thymic progenitors for T cells possess myeloid lineage potential,” Nature, vol. 452, no. 7188, pp. 764–767, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. T. Palomero, K. McKenna, J. O-Neil et al., “Activating mutations in NOTCH1 in acute myeloid leukemia and lineage switch leukemias,” Leukemia, vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 1963–1966, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. F. Weerkamp, T. C. Luis, B. A. E. Naber et al., “Identification of Notch target genes in uncommitted T-cell progenitors: no direct induction of a T-cell specific gene program,” Leukemia, vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 1967–1977, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. J. E. Rubnitz, M. Onciu, S. Pounds et al., “Acute mixed lineage leukemia in children: the experience of St Jude Children's Research Hospital,” Blood, vol. 113, no. 21, pp. 5083–5089, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. E. G. Weir, M. A. Ansari-Lari, D. A. S. Batista et al., “Acute bilineal leukemia: a rare disease with poor outcome,” Leukemia, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2264–2270, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. G. Zardo, G. Cimino, and C. Nervi, “Epigenetic plasticity of chromatin in embryonic and hematopoietic stem/ progenitor cells: therapeutic potential of cell reprogramming,” Leukemia, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 1503–1518, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. M. Messina, S. Chiaretti, I. Iacobucci et al., “AICDA expression in BCR/ABL1-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is associated with a peculiar gene expression profile,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 152, no. 6, pp. 727–732, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. R. Strauss, P. Hamerlik, A. Lieber, and J. Bartek, “Regulation of stem cell plasticity: mechanisms and relevance to tissue biology and cancer,” Molecular Therapy, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 887–897, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  76. T. Graf, “Differentiation plasticity of hematopoietic cells,” Blood, vol. 99, no. 9, pp. 3089–3101, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. B. Falini and D. Y. Mason, “Proteins encoded by genes involved in chromosomal alterations in lymphoma and leukemia: clinical value of their detection by immunocytochemistry,” Blood, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 409–426, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. E. Smith and M. Sigvardsson, “The roles of transcription factors in B lymphocyte commitment, development, and transformation,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 75, no. 6, pp. 973–981, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. M. Wernig, A. Meissner, R. Foreman et al., “In vitro reprogramming of fibroblasts into a pluripotent ES-cell-like state,” Nature, vol. 448, no. 7151, pp. 318–324, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. K. Takahashi and S. Yamanaka, “Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors,” Cell, vol. 126, no. 4, pp. 663–676, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. R. Jaenisch and R. Young, “Stem cells, the molecular circuitry of pluripotency and nuclear reprogramming,” Cell, vol. 132, no. 4, pp. 567–582, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. E. R. Panzer-Grümayer, G. Cazzaniga, V. H. J. Van Der Velden et al., “Immunogenotype changes prevail in relapses of young children with TEL-AML1-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia and derive mainly from clonal selection,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 11, no. 21, pp. 7720–7727, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. G. J. Ruiz-Argüelles, A. Ruiz-Argüelles, and J. Garcés-Eisele, “Donor cell leukemia: a critical review,” Leukemia and Lymphoma, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 25–38, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. S. A. Schichman, P. Suess, A. M. Vertino, and P. S. Gray, “Comparison of short tandem repeat and variable number tandemrepeat genetic markers for quantitative determination of allogeneic bone marrow transplant engraftment,” Bone Marrow Transplantation, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 243–248, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. I. Buño, P. Nava, A. Simón et al., “A comparison of fluorescent in situ hybridization and multiplex short tandem repeat polymerase chain reaction for quantifying chimerism after stem cell transplantation,” Haematologica, vol. 90, no. 10, pp. 1373–1379, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. C. M. Flynn and D. S. Kaufman, “Donor cell leukemia: insight into cancer stem cells and the stem cell niche,” Blood, vol. 109, no. 7, pp. 2688–2692, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. M. Heuser, G. Park, Y. Moon et al., “Extrinsic signals determine myeloid-erythroid lineage switch in MN1 leukemia,” Experimental Hematology, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 174–179, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. A. G. Muntean and J. L. Hess, “MLL-AF9 leukemia stem cells: hardwired or taking cues from the microenvironment?” Cancer Cell, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 465–467, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. C. W. So, H. Karsunky, E. Passegué, A. Cozzio, I. L. Weissman, and M. L. Cleary, “MLL-GAS7 transforms multipotent hematopoietic progenitors and induces mixed lineage leukemias in mice,” Cancer Cell, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 161–171, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. J. Wei, M. Wunderlich, C. Fox et al., “Microenvironment determines lineage fate in a human model of MLL-AF9 leukemia,” Cancer Cell, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 483–495, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. L. Espinoza-Hernández, J. Cruz-Rico, H. Benítez-Aranda et al., “In vitro characterization of the hematopoietic system in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia,” Leukemia Research, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 295–303, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. D. Mueller, M. P. García-Cuéllar, C. Bach, S. Buhl, E. Maethner, and R. K. Slany, “Misguided transcriptional elongation causes mixed lineage leukemia,” PLoS Biology, vol. 7, no. 11, Article ID e1000249, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. M. S. Hayden and S. Ghosh, “NF-κB in immunobiology,” Cell Research, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 223–244, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. P. Tsapogas, S. Zandi, J. Åhsberg et al., “IL-7 mediates Ebf-1-dependent lineage restriction in early lymphoid progenitors,” Blood, vol. 118, no. 5, pp. 1283–1290, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  95. E. Chen, L. M. Staudt, and A. R. Green, “Janus kinase deregulation in leukemia and lymphoma,” Immunity, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 529–541, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  96. B. Kovacic, A. Hoelbl, G. Litos et al., “Diverging fates of cells of origin in acute and chronic leukaemia,” EMBO Molecular Medicine, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 283–297, 2012. View at Google Scholar