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Bone Marrow Research
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 405920, 12 pages
Review Article

Molecular Regulation of Bone Marrow Metastasis in Prostate and Breast Cancer

1Health Research Institute, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz 61357-15794, Iran
2Health Research Institute, Research Center of Thalassemia & Hemoglobinopathy, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz 61357-15794, Iran
3Division of Pharmacology and Pathophysiology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Utrecht University, 80082 Utrecht, The Netherlands
4Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, National Research and Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 19575/154 Tehran, Iran
5Cell and Molecular Biology Group, Airways Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Dovehouse Street, London SW7 2AZ, UK
6Department of Biochemistry and Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan 35131-38111, Iran

Received 11 February 2014; Revised 9 June 2014; Accepted 11 June 2014; Published 23 July 2014

Academic Editor: Peter J. Quesenberry

Copyright © 2014 Fakher Rahim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Metastasis is a multistep process, which refers to the ability to leave a primary tumor through circulation toward the distant tissue and form a secondary tumor. Bone is a common site of metastasis, in which osteolytic and osteoblastic metastasis are observed. Signaling pathways, chemokines, growth factors, adhesion molecules, and cellular interactions as well as miRNAs have been known to play an important role in the development of bone metastasis. These factors provide an appropriate environment (soil) for growth and survival of metastatic tumor cells (seed) in bone marrow microenvironment. Recognition of these factors and determination of their individual roles in the development of metastasis and disruption of cellular interactions can provide important therapeutic targets for treatment of these patients, which can also be used as prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers. Thus, in this paper, we have attempted to highlight the molecular regulation of bone marrow metastasis in prostate and breast cancers.