Table of Contents
Biotechnology Research International
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 162987, 7 pages
Research Article

Effect of Alcohol Structure on the Optimum Condition for Novozym 435-Catalyzed Synthesis of Adipate Esters

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Malaysia
2Structural Biology Research Center, Malaysia Genome Institute, MTDC-UKM, Smart Technology Centre, UKM Bangi, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

Received 9 June 2011; Accepted 20 September 2011

Academic Editor: Shengwu Ma

Copyright © 2011 Mohd Basyaruddin Abdul Rahman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B, Novozym 435, was used as the biocatalyst in the esterification of adipic acid with four different isomers of butanol (n-butanol, sec-butanol, iso-butanol, and tert-butanol). Optimum conditions for the synthesis of adipate esters were obtained using response surface methodology approach with a four-factor-five-level central composite design concerning important reaction parameters which include time, temperature, substrate molar ratio, and amount of enzyme. Reactions under optimized conditions has yielded a high percentage of esterification (>96%) for n-butanol, iso-butanol, and sec-butanol, indicating that extent of esterification is independent of the alcohol structure for primary and secondary alcohols at the optimum conditions. Minimum reaction time (135 min) for achieving maximum ester yield was obtained for iso-butanol. The required time for attaining maximum yield and also the initial rates in the synthesis of di-n-butyl and di-sec-butyl adipate were nearly the same. Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B was also capable of esterifying tert-butanol with a maximum yield of 39.1%. The enzyme is highly efficient biocatalyst for the synthesis of adipate esters by offering a simple production process and a high esterification yield.