Table 1: Enzymes involved in biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

EnzymesSubstratesMicroorganismsReferences

Soluble Methane
Monooxygenases
C1–C8 alkanes alkenes and cycloalkanesMethylococcus
Methylosinus
MethylocystisMcDonald et al. [46]
Methylomonas
Methylocella

Particulate Methane
Monooxygenases
C1–C5 (halogenated) alkanes and cycloalkanesMethylobacter
Methylococcus,McDonald et al. [46]
Methylocystis

AlkB related
Alkane
Hydroxylases
C5–C16 alkanes, fatty acids, alkyl benzenes, cycloalkanes and so forthPseudomonas
BurkholderiaJan et al. [47]
Rhodococcus,
Mycobacterium

Eukaryotic P450C10–C16 alkanes, fatty acidsCandida maltosa
Candida tropicalis Iida et al. [48]
Yarrowia lipolytica

Bacterial P450
oxygenase system
C5–C16 alkanes, cycloalkanesAcinetobacter
Caulobacter Van Beilen et al. [49]
Mycobacterium

DioxygenasesC10–C30 alkanesAcinetobacter sp.Maeng et al. [50]