Biotechnology Research International / 2012 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Biotechnological Tools for Environmental Sustainability: Prospects and Challenges for Environments in Nigeria—A Standard Review

Table 2

Environmental process and bioremediation procedures involved.

Environmental conditionBiosystem/microbes usedBioremediation benefit

Waste water and industrial effluentsSulphur-metabolising bacteria(1) Microorganisms in sewage treatment plants remove common pollutants (heavy metals and sulphur compounds) from waste water before it is discharged into rivers or sea.
(2) Production of animal feed from fungal biomass after penicillin production in penicillin industries.
(3) Useful biogas (methane, etc.) production from anaerobic waste water treatment.

Drinking and process waterOrganic degrading microbes (Bacteria, fungi, and algae)(1) Reclamation and purification of waste waters for reuse and provision of portable recyclable drinking water for the public consumption and for livestock use.
(2) Remove wastes for organic fertilizer agric use.

Air and waste gasesBacteria, fungiBiofilter application of pollutant purifying bacteria. Application of bioscrubbers, immobilized microorganism in inert matrix and nutrient film trickling devices for better air and gas purification. For example, bioscrubber-based system for removal of nitrogen and sulphur oxides from flue gas of blast furnaces in place of limestone gypsum process, and elimination of styrene from the waste gas of polystyrene processing industries by a fungi biofilter model.

Soil and land treatmentPseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., Fungi, Rhodococcus, Acinetobacter, Mycobacterium Both in situ (in its original place) and ex situ (somewhere else) are commercially exploited for the cleanup of soil and groundwater. Use of microorganisms (bioaugmentation, ventilation, and/or adding nutrient solution (biostimulation) that is, petroleum decontamination, can involve use of plants (phytoremediation). Bacteria in association with roots of plants (Rhizobacterium), and so forth. Use of bioreactors for ex situ treatment with introduction of suitable microbes and environmental factors.

Solid wasteBacteria, fungi, and so forthComposting or anaerobic digestion of domestic and garden wastes helps in recovery of high-value biogas and useful organic compost without the toxic components. Free breakdown of solid waste by microbial biota for recyclable waste, an acceptable alternative to incineration.

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.