Biotechnological Tools for Environmental Sustainability: Prospects and Challenges for Environments in Nigeria—A Standard Review
Environmental friendly application of enzymes.
Fine chemical production
Biocatalysis using selectivity of enzymes for one of the enantiomers of a chiral molecule, that is, one enantiomer of a racemate is unaffected and the other enantiomer is converted into the desired, pure chemical
Hydrolases are most prominent enzyme used in production of fine chemicals by biocatalytic resolution
Developing proteases for use in soaking, dehairing, and bating processes
Proteases from Aspergillus tamarii and Alcaligenes faecalis and loosen hair without chemical assistance. Alkaline protease produced from Rhizopus oryzae through solid-state fermentation dehairs the skins completely; use of enzymes for dehairing; baterial cultures have keratinolytic activity
H2 reactions catalyzed by either nitrogenase or hydrogenase enzymes
E. coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Clostridium butyricum use multienzyme systems. Can continuously produce H2 photochemically and nonphotochemically. Nitrogenase enzymes from Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Rhodobacter sphaeroides generate H2 under N-limited conditions
Xylanase is applied before bleaching, replacing Cl-containing compounds in the first stage of the five-stage bleaching sequence. While rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium) degrades lignin in bioreactor wood chips injected with fungus and a growth medium, incubate for 2 weeks, followed by traditional chemical or mechanical processes
Enzyme replaces traditional Cl-addition. Biotechnology process reduces the amount of Cl-containing compounds by more than 10%. Bioreactor method reduces bleaching-related energy requirements by 40%, with concomitant pollution reduction
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