Table 1: Examples of traditional fermented fruits and vegetables, which are used in various parts of Asian subcontinent.

Fermented food productCountryFruit and vegetablesOther ingredientsMicroorganismsReferences

Burong mustalaPhilippinesMustard leafRock saltL. brevis
Pediococcus cerevisiae
[105]

Ca muoiVietnamEggplantL. fermentum
L. pentosus
L. brevis
[103, 106]

DakguadongThailandMustard leafSaltL. plantarum [107]

DhamuoiVietnamCabbage, various vegetablesLeuconostoc mesenteroides
L. plantarum
[37]

Dua muoiVietnamMustard or beetOnion, sugar, and saltL. fermentum
L. pentosus
L. plantarum
P. pentosaceus
[103]

GundrukNepal, IndiaCabbage, radish, mustard, cauliflowerNoPediococcus and Lactobacillus spp. [10, 27, 37]

InziangsangIndiaMustard leafNoL. plantarum
L. brevis,
Pediococcus acidilactici
[10, 36]

Jiang-gua TaiwanCucumber SaltWeissella cibaria
W. hellenica
L. Plantarum
Leuconostoc lactis
Enterococcus casseliflavus
[68]

KhalpiNepalCucumberNoL. plantarum
P. pentosaceus
[10, 27]

KimchiKoreaCabbage, radish, various vegetables Garlic, red pepper, green onion, ginger, and salt Leuconostoc mesenteroides
L. brevis
L. plantarum
L. sakei
[42]

Nozawana-ZukeJapanTurnip L. curvatus [65]

OliveSpain, ItalyOliveSaltL. plantarum
L. brevis
L.  pentosus
P. cerevisiae
L. mesenteroides
[108, 109]

Pak-Gard-DongThailandMustard leaf Salt and sugar solutionL. brevis
P. cerevisiae
L. plantarum
[110]

Pak-sian-dongThailandLeaves of Pak-sian (Gynadropsis pentaphylla)BrineL. brevis
P. cerevisiae
L. plantarum
[107]

PaocaiChinaCabbage, celery, cucumber, and radishGinger, salt, sugar, hot red pepperL. pentosus,
L. plantarum
Leuconostoc mesenteroides
L. brevis
L. lactis
L. fermentum
[36, 51]

PobuzihiTaiwanCummingcordiaSalt Lactobacillus pobuzihii,
L. plantarum
W cibaria
W. paramesenteroides
P. pentosaceus
[63, 64]

SauerkrautInternationalCabbage Salt L. mesenteroides
L. plantarum
L. brevis
L. rhamnosus
L. plantarum
[95, 111, 112]

Sayur asinIndonesiaMustard, cabbage Salt,
Liquid from boiled rice
L. mesenteroides
L. confuses
L. plantarum
P. pentosaceus
[54]

SinkiIndia, Nepal, and BhutanRadishNoL. plantarum
L. brevis
L. fermentum
L. fallax
P. pentosaceus
[10]

SoidonIndiaBamboo ShootWaterL. brevis
L. fallax
L. lactis
[39]

Suan-tsaiTaiwanChinese cabbage, cabbage, Mustard leavesSaltP. pentosaceus
Tetragenococcus halophilus
[102, 113, 114]

SunkiJapanLeaves of otaki-turnipWild appleL. plantarum
L. brevis
P. pentosaceus
Bacillus coagulans
[20]

TempoyakMalaysiaDuriyan (Durio zibethinus)SaltL. brevis
L. mesenteroides
Lactobacillus mali
L. fermentum
[53]

Yan-dong-guaTaiwanWax gourdSalt, sugar, and fermented soybeansW. cibaria
W. paramesenteroides
[52]

Yan-jiangTaiwanGingerPlums, saltL. sakei
Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis
W. cibaria
L. plantarum
[66]

Yan-taozihChina and TaiwanPeachesSalt, sugar, and pickled plumsL. mesenteroides,
W. cibaria,
L. lactis subsp. lactis,
W. paramesenteroides,
E. faecalis,
W. minor
L. brevis
[62]

Yan-tsai-shinTaiwanBroccoliSugar, soy sauce, and sesame oilW. paramesenteroides
W. cibaria
W. minor
Leuconostoc mesenteroides
L. Plantarum
E. sulfurous
[67]