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Biotechnology Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 642385, 10 pages
Research Article

Kojic Acid Production from Agro-Industrial By-Products Using Fungi

1Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71515, Egypt
2Microbial Biotechnology Department, National Research Center, Dokki 12622, Egypt

Received 4 November 2013; Revised 4 February 2014; Accepted 4 February 2014; Published 23 March 2014

Academic Editor: Manuel Canovas

Copyright © 2014 Ismael A. El-Kady et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A total of 278 different isolates of filamentous fungi were screened using synthetic medium for respective ability to produce kojic acid. Nineteen, six, and five isolates proved to be low, moderate, and high kojic acid producers, respectively. Levels of kojic acid produced were generally increased when shaking cultivation was used rather than those obtained using static cultivation. A trial for the utilization of 15 agro-industrial wastes or by-products for kojic acid production by the five selected higher kojic acid producer isolates was made. The best by-product medium recorded was molasses for kojic acid. A. flavus numbers 7 and 24 were able to grow and produce kojic acid on only 12 out of 15 wastes or by-products media. The best medium used for kojic acid production by A. flavus number 7 was rice fragments followed by molasses, while the best medium used for kojic acid production by A. flavus number 24 was the molasses followed by orange, pea, and rice fragments. An attempt for production of kojic acid using a 1.5 L laboratory fermentor has been made. Aspergillus flavus number 7 was used and grown on molasses medium; maximum level (53.5 g/L) of kojic acid was obtained after eight days of incubation.