Table of Contents
Biotechnology Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 132635, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/132635
Review Article

Role of Heat-Shock Proteins in Cellular Function and in the Biology of Fungi

Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Solan, Himachal Pradesh 173234, India

Received 30 September 2015; Revised 20 November 2015; Accepted 16 December 2015

Academic Editor: Maxim Golovkin

Copyright © 2015 Shraddha Tiwari et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Stress (biotic or abiotic) is an unfavourable condition for an organism including fungus. To overcome stress, organism expresses heat-shock proteins (Hsps) or chaperons to perform biological function. Hsps are involved in various routine biological processes such as transcription, translation and posttranslational modifications, protein folding, and aggregation and disaggregation of proteins. Thus, it is important to understand holistic role of Hsps in response to stress and other biological conditions in fungi. Hsp104, Hsp70, and Hsp40 are found predominant in replication and Hsp90 is found in transcriptional and posttranscriptional process. Hsp90 and Hsp70 in combination or alone play a major role in morphogenesis and dimorphism. Heat stress in fungi expresses Hsp60, Hsp90, Hsp104, Hsp30, and Hsp10 proteins, whereas expression of Hsp12 protein was observed in response to cold stress. Hsp30, Hsp70, and Hsp90 proteins showed expression in response to pH stress. Osmotic stress is controlled by small heat-shock proteins and Hsp60. Expression of Hsp104 is observed under high pressure conditions. Out of these heat-shock proteins, Hsp90 has been predicted as a potential antifungal target due to its role in morphogenesis. Thus, current review focuses on role of Hsps in fungi during morphogenesis and various stress conditions (temperature, pH, and osmotic pressure) and in antifungal drug tolerance.