Research Article | Open Access
Nickel Release from Piercing Jewellery
The migration of nickel was studied for a set of twelve new units of piercing jewellery and eleven ones used for longer than one year. First, the surface of the samples was analysed using ED XRF and then samples were submerged into the artificial sweat solution for 168 hours at C. The resulting solutions were then analysed using ICP OES. A significant migration of nickel was found for four samples used, whereas only one of them was considered to exceed the migration limit given by ČSN EN 1811 +A1. Regrettably, no connection between elemental composition of particular jewellery sample measured by ED XRF and corresponding Ni release to the artificial sweat was observed.
- J. P. Thyssen, A. Linneberg, T. Menné, and J. D. Johansen, “The epidemiology of contact allergy in the general population—prevalence and main findings,” Contact Dermatitis, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 287–299, 2007.
- L. K. Lu, E. M. Warshaw, and C. A. Dunnick, “Prevention of Nickel allergy: the case for regulation?” Dermatologic Clinics, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 155–161, 2009.
- Y. Y. Kim, M. Y. Kim, Y. M. Park, H. O. Kim, C. S. Koh, and H. K. Lee, “Evaluating the nickel content in metal alloys and the threshold for nickel-induced allergic contact dermatitis,” Journal of Korean Medical Science, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 315–319, 2008.
- B. Bocca, G. Forte, O. Senofonte et al., “A pilot study on the content and the release of Ni and other allergenic metals from cheap earrings available on the Italian market,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 388, no. 1–3, pp. 24–34, 2007.
- J. P. Thyssen and H. I. Maibach, “Nickel release from earrings purchased in the United States: the San Francisco earring study,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 1000–1005, 2008.
- J. P. Thyssen, J. D. Johansen, T. Menné, N. H. Nielsen, and A. Linneberg, “Nickel allergy in danish women before and after nickel regulation,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 360, no. 21, pp. 2259–2260, 2009.
- J. P. Thyssen, T. Menné, and J. D. Johansen, “Nickel release from inexpensive jewelry and hair clasps purchased in an EU country—are consumers sufficiently protected from nickel exposure?” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 407, no. 20, pp. 5315–5318, 2009.
- T. Černohorský, M. Pouzar, and K. Jakubec, “ED XRF analysis of precious metallic alloys with the use of combined FP method,” Talanta, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 538–541, 2006.
Copyright © 2010 Miloslav Pouzar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.