Table of Contents
Volume 2012, Article ID 840935, 5 pages
Research Article

Effects of Diet, Aerobic Exercise, or Both on Non-HDL-C in Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Meta-Analytic Research Group, Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Robert C. Byrd Health Sciences Center, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-9190, USA

Received 18 August 2012; Accepted 26 September 2012

Academic Editor: Jan Wouter Jukema

Copyright © 2012 George A. Kelley and Kristi S. Kelley. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Purpose. To use the meta-analytic approach to examine the effects of diet (D), aerobic exercise (E), or both (DE) on non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) in adults. Methods. Randomized controlled trials in adults ≥18 years of age were included. A mixed-effect model was used to combine effect size (ES) results within each subgroup and to compare subgroups ( ). Heterogeneity was examined using the and statistics, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were also calculated. Statistical significance was set at , while a trend for statistical significance was set between , and ≤0.10. Results. A statistically significant exercise minus control group decrease in non-HDL-C was found for DE (7 ESs, 389 participants,  mg/dL, 95% to −0.6, , , , %), a trend for the D group (7 ESs, 402 participants,  mg/dL, 95% to 1.6, , , , %), and no change for the E group (7 ESs, 387 participants,  mg/dL, 95% to 13.1, , , , %). Overall, no statistically significant between-group differences were found ( , ). Conclusions. Diet combined with aerobic exercise may reduce non-HDL-C among adults in some settings.