Figure 3: Proliferation and migration of resident vascular wall cells. Lp(a) promotes vascular remodelling by activating multiple signalling pathways within SMC and EC. The response of the cell (e.g., proliferation, migration, or apoptosis) is dependent upon Lp(a) activated signalling cascades that are cell-type specific and dependent upon the oxidation state of the Lp(a) molecule.