Table 3: Epidemiological and human intervention studies on the effect of dietary egg intake and CVD risks.
(a) Prospective studies

ReferenceParticipantsAgeFollow-up (years)OutcomeResult

Bernstein 2011 [178]43,15084,01030-7526Incident stroke(-)
2007 [205]
25625815-8814CHD, mortality
Dawber 1982 [185]91230-5924Incident CHD and blood cholesterol level(-)
Djoussé 2008 [197]21,327040-8520Incident MI and stroke(-)
Goldberg 2014 [206]57285757-7511Incident stroke(-)
Carotid atherosclerosis
Haring 2014 [207]12,06645-6422Incident CHD(-)
Houston 2011 [208]864107770-799Incident CVD↑ especially in diabetic people
1999 [12]
37,85180,08234-7514Incident stroke and CHD(-) while in diabetic people may have ↑ effect
1997 [209]
4,1026,70016-7913.3Ischemic heart disease mortality
Nakamura 2004 [195]5,1864,07730-7014Stroke and CHD mortality↑ in women
Nakamura 2006 [14]43,31947,41640-6910.2Incident CHD(-)
Qureshi 2006 [13]3,7565,97825-7415.9All stroke, CAD(-) while in diabetic people may have ↑ effect
Sauvaget 2003 [210]15,35024,99934-10316Stroke mortality(-)
Scrafford 2011 [196]14,946>178.8CHD and Stroke mortality(-)
2011 [45]
6,1708,01520-905.8Incident CVD(-)
Voutilainen 2013 [198]1,019051.9 (Mean)18.8Carotid atherosclerosis, incident MI(-)
2017 [211]
8,1318,463>60N/ASerum LDL and total cholesterol
Spence 2012 [212]66959346-77N/ACarotid plaque area
Trichopoulou 2006 [126]42458950-80 (Adult diabetics)4.5 (mean)Mortality

(b) Human intervention

ReferenceParticipantsAgeIntervention time (weeks)Intervention methodOutcomeResult

Missimer 2017 [124]242618-30112 eggs/day vs. oatmealSerum LDL and HDL
Serum LDL/HDL(-)
Serum ghrelin↑ satiety

Lemos 2018 [20] 16 1418-20133 eggs/day vs. choline bitartrate supplementSerum LDL and HDL
Serum LDL/HDL(-)
SREBPs and HMG-CoA reductase level↓ cholesterol biosynthesis

Herron 2002 [125]05118-49 (pre-menopausal)111 egg/day vs.
0 egg/day
Serum LDL and HDL
Serum LDL/HDL(-)
CETP level↑ reverse cholesterol transport

Herron 2003 [126]40018-57111 egg/day vs.
0 egg/day
Serum LDL and HDL
Serum LDL/HDL↑ only in hyper-responders
CETP, LCAT level↑ reverse cholesterol transport

Mutungi 2008 [199]28040-70 (overweight/obese)12CRD:
3 eggs/day vs. SUB
Serum LDL/HDL(-)
Serum HDL

Greene 2005 [200]1329>60113 eggs/day vs. SUBSerum LDL and HDL
Serum LDL/HDL(-)

Ballesteros 2004 [123]25298-12112 eggs/day vs. SUBSerum LDL/HDL(-)

Knopp 2003 [132]7811943-6740, 2 and 4 eggs/daySerum LDL and HDL

Knopp 1997 [131]864541-68 (HC or HL)122 eggs/day vs. SUBSerum LDL↑ in HC
Serum HDL↑ in both HL and HC

Abbreviations: CHD, coronary heart disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; MI, myocardial infarction; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; SREBP, sterol regulatory element-binding protein; CETP, cholesteryl ester transfer protein; LCAT, lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase; CRD, Carbohydrate-restricted diets; SUB, cholesterol-free, fat-free egg substitute; HC, hypercholesterolemia; HL, hyperlipidemia; ↑ increase, ↓ decrease, (-) no influence. Intervention time contain a 3-weeks washout time within the intervention period; hyperresponders: increase in total cholesterol of ≥0.06 mmol/L for each additional 100 mg of dietary cholesterol consumed.