Table of Contents
Chinese Journal of Biology
Volume 2014, Article ID 219392, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/219392
Research Article

Antimicrobial Activity of Cladonia verticillaris Lichen Preparations on Bacteria and Fungi of Medical Importance

1Departamento de Bioquímica, CCB, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Avenida Professor Moraes Rego s/n, Cidade Universitária, 50670-420 Recife, PE, Brazil
2Departamento de Ciências Animais, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, 59625-900 Mossoró, RN, Brazil

Received 22 October 2013; Accepted 27 November 2013; Published 22 January 2014

Academic Editors: B. Martinac and Z. Qiusheng

Copyright © 2014 Dalila de Brito Marques Ramos et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Cladonia verticillaris lichen lectin (ClaveLL) was purified using a previously established protocol and then evaluated for its potential antimicrobial activity. Initially, the autochthonous lichen was submitted to extraction with sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0, followed by filtration and centrifugation to obtain crude extract. A salt fractionation was performed with 30% ammonium sulfate. After centrifugation, the protein fraction was loaded onto molecular exclusion chromatography using Sephadex G-100 matrix to purify active lectin. ClaveLL showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) assayed strains, with greater inhibitory effect on growth of E. coli (MIC of 7.18 μg mL−1). The lowest minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC, 57.4 μg mL−1) was detected against E. faecalis. The antifungal assay performed with Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichosporon cutaneum, and Trichosporon asahi evaluated crude extract, fraction, and ClaveLL preparations. ClaveLL was the most active against T. rubrum with an inhibition percentage of 35% compared to negative control (phosphate buffer). Extract and fraction showed better activity on growth inhibition of T. mentagrophytes (35%). The results indicate the potential of ClaveLL and other C. verticillaris preparations as antimicrobial agents useful for applications focusing on human health.