Table of Contents
Chinese Journal of Biology
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 713109, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/713109
Review Article

Association of Copy Number Variations in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

Department of Medical Biology, Erciyes University Medical School, 38039 Kayseri, Turkey

Received 20 August 2014; Revised 9 October 2014; Accepted 27 October 2014; Published 16 November 2014

Academic Editor: Shuhua Xu

Copyright © 2014 Elif Funda Sener. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by language impairments, social deficits, and repetitive behaviors. The onset of symptoms occurs by the age of 3 and shows a lifelong persistence. Genetics plays a major role in the etiology of ASD. Except genetics, several potential risk factors (environmental factors and epigenetics) may contribute to ASD. Copy number variations (CNVs) are the most widespread structural variations in the human genome. These variations can alter the genome structure either by deletion or by duplication. CNVs can be de novo or inherited. Chromosomal rearrangements have been detected in 5–10% of the patients with ASD and recently copy number changes ranging from a few kilobases (kb) to several megabases (Mb) in size have been reported. Recent data have also revealed that submicroscopic CNVs can have a role in ASD, and de novo CNVs seem to be a more common risk factor in sporadic compared with inherited forms of ASD. CNVs are being implicated as a contributor to the pathophysiology of complex neurodevelopmental disorders and they can affect a wide range of human phenotypes including mental retardation (MR), autism, neuropsychiatric disorders, and susceptibility to other complex traits such as HIV, Crohn’s disease, and psoriasis. This review emphasizes the major CNVs reported to date in ASD.