Table of Contents
Chinese Journal of Engineering
Volume 2014, Article ID 385385, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/385385
Review Article

A Review on the Development of Rotman Lens Antenna

1FET, ECE-Department, Manav Rachna International University, Faridabad, Haryana 121001, India
2Manav Rachna International University, Faridabad, Haryana 121001, India
3HOD-ECE, MITS, Gwalior, India

Received 17 February 2014; Revised 19 June 2014; Accepted 20 June 2014; Published 17 July 2014

Academic Editor: Dean Deng

Copyright © 2014 Shruti Vashist et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Kim and F. Barnes, “Scaling and focusing of the Rotman lens,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, vol. 2, pp. 773–776, July 2001. View at Scopus
  2. R. C. Hansen, Phased Array Antennas, John Wiley Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1998.
  3. S. S. D. Jones, H. Gent, and A. A. L. Browne, “Improvements in or relating to electromagnetic-wave lens and mirror systems,” British Provisional Patent Specification No. 25926/56, 1956.
  4. K. Jaeheung, Developments of rotman lenses at micro/millimeter-wave frequencies [Ph.D. thesis in Electrical Engineering], University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo, USA, 2003.
  5. M. Hawes and W. Liu, “Sparse array design for wideband beamforming with reduced complexity in tapped delay-lines,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 1236–1237, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  6. D. H. Archer, “Fed multiple beam arrays,” Microwave Journal, vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 13–195, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. Steyskal, C. Cox, and E. Ackerman, “Digital and optical beamforming techniques,” in Phased Array Systems and Technology International Symposium, p. 616, 2003.
  8. C. W. Penney, R. J. Luebbers, and E. Lenzing, “Broad band Rotman Lens simulations in FDTD,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium and USNC/URSI Meeting, pp. 51–54, Washington, DC, USA, July 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. G. L. Leonakis, “Correction to wide-angle microwave lens for line source applications,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 34, no. 8, p. 1067, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. A. H. Jafari, W. Liu, and D. R. Morgan, “Study of sensor positions for broadband beamforming,” IEEE Signal Processing Letters, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 779–782, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. Archer, “Lens-fed multiple beam arrays,” Microwave Journal, vol. 18, pp. 37–42, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  12. J. J. Lee and G. W. Valentine, “Multibeam array using Rotman lens and RF heterodyne,” in Proceedings of the AP-S International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation Society, vol. 3, pp. 1612–1615, Baltimore, Md, USA, July 1996. View at Scopus
  13. A. Rahimian, “Microwave beamforming networks for intelligent transportation systems,” in Intelligent Transportation Systems, A. Abdel-Rahim, Ed., pp. 123–142, InTech, Rijeka, Croatia, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  14. R. C. Hansen, “Design trades for Rotman lenses,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 464–472, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. W. Rotman and R. F. Turner, “Wide-angle microwave lens for line source applications,” IEEE Transactions on Antenna and Propagation, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 623–632, 1963. View at Google Scholar
  16. J. Ruze, “Wide-angle metal-plate optics,” Proceedings of the IRE, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 53–59, 1950. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. D. H. Archer and M. J. Maybell, “Rotman lens development history at raytheon electronic warfare systems 1967–1995,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, vol. 2, pp. 31–34, July 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. H. Archer, R. J. Prickett, and C. P. Hartwig, “Multi-beam array antenna,” U.S. Patent 3761936, 1973.
  19. A. Al-Zayed, L. Schulwitz, and A. Mortazawi, “A dual polarized millimeter-wave multibeam phased array,” in Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE MITT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, vol. 1, pp. 87–90, June 2004. View at Scopus
  20. J. Rao, “Multifocal three-dimensional bootlace lenses,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 1050–1056, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. Rao, “Correction to “Multifocal three-dimensional bootlace lenses”,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 31, p. 541, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  22. J. P. Shelton, “Focusing characteristics of symmetrically configured bootlace lenses,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 513–518, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. J. Maybell, “Ray structure method for coupling coefficient analysis of the two dimensional Rotman lens,” in Proceedings of the Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, pp. 144–147, Los Angeles, Calif, USA, June 1981.
  24. G. S. Hardie, R. Hernandez, and M. J. Maybell, “Parallel plate lens antenna,” U.S. Patent 4490723, 1984.
  25. T. Katagi, S. Mano, and S. Sato, “An improved design method of rotman lens antennas,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 524–527, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. L. Musa and M. Smith, “Microstrip rotman lens port design,” in Proceedings of the Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, vol. 24, pp. 899–902, 1986.
  27. L. Musa and M. S. Smith, “Microstrip port design and sidewall absorption for printed Rotman lenses,” IEE Proceedings H: Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, vol. 136, no. 1, pp. 53–58, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. L. Hall, H. Hansen, and D. Abbott, “Rotman lens for mm-wavelengths,” in Smart Structures, Devices, and Systems, vol. 4935 of Proccedings of SPIE, pp. 215–221, 2002.
  29. D. R. Gagnon, “Procedure for correct refocusing of the Rotman lens according to Snell's law,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 390–392, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. P. K. Singhal, R. D. Gupta, and P. C. Sharma, “Design and analysis of modified Rotman type multiple beam forming lens,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Region 10 International Conference on 'Global Connectivity in Energy, Computer, Communication and Control (TENCON '98), vol. 2, pp. 257–260, December 1998. View at Scopus
  31. M. J. Maybell, “Printed Rotman Lens fed array having wide bandwidth low side lobes, constant beam width and synthesized radiation pattern,” in Proceedings of the IEEE AP Symposium Digest, pp. 373–376, Houston, Tex, USA, 1983.
  32. E. O. Rausch and A. F. Peterson, “Rotman lens design issues,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium and USNC/URSI Meeting, vol. 2, pp. 35–38, July 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. P. K. Singhal, P. C. Sharma, and R. D. Gupta, “Rotman lens with equal height of array and feed contours,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 2048–2056, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. P. Simon, “Analysis and synthesis of Rotman lenses,” in Proceedings of the 22nd AIAA International Communications Satellite Systems Conference & Exhibit, Monterey, Calif, USA, May 2004. View at Scopus
  35. J. Dong and R. Cheung, “A computer synthesized 2~8 GHz printed rotman Lens with 98 input-to-output configuration,” in Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation and USNC/URSI National Radio Science Meeting (APSURSI '11), pp. 616–618, July 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. Dong, A. I. Zaghloul, R. Sun, and C. J. Reddy, “EHF rotman lens for electronic scanning antennas,” in Proceedings of the Asia Pacific Microwave Conference (APMC '08), December 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. Dong, A. I. Zaghloul, and R. Rotman, “Non-focal minimum-phase-error planar rotman lens,” in Proceedings of theUSNC /URSI National Radio Science Meeting, Boulder, Colo, USA, January 2008.
  38. J. Dong, A. I. Zaghloul, and R. Rotman, “Non-focal minimum-phase-error planar rotman lens,” in Proceedings of the URSI National Radio Science Meeting, Boulder, Colo, USA, 2008.
  39. J. Dong and A. I. Zaghloul, “Implementation of microwave lens for 360-degree scanning,” in Proceeding of the IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation (APSURSI '09), pp. 1–4, Charleston, SC, USA, June 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. I. Zaghloul and J. Dong, “A concept for a lens configuration for 360° scanning,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 8, pp. 985–988, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. Uyguroğlu, A. Y. Öztoprak, and C. Ergün, “Improved phase performance for rotman lens,” International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 634–638, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  42. S. Christie, R. Cahill, N. B. Buchanan et al., “Rotman lens-based retrodirective array,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 1343–1351, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. Y. Zhang, S. Christie, V. Fusco, R. Cahill, G. Goussetis, and D. Linton, “Reconfigurable beam forming using phase-aligned Rotman lens,” IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 326–330, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. W. Zongxin, X. Bo, and Y. Fei, “A multibeam antenna array based on printed rotman lens,” International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2013, Article ID 179327, 6 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus