Research Article  Open Access
The Configuration Space of Tuples of Equiangular Unit Vectors for , , and
Abstract
Let be the configuration space of tuples of unit vectors in such that all interior angles are . The space is an dimensional space. This paper determines the topological type of for , , and .
1. Introduction
Recently, starting in [1], the topology of the configuration space of spatial polygons of arbitrary edge lengths has been considered by many authors. In the equilateral case, the definition is given as follows. For , we setHere denote the unit vectors in the directions of the edges of a polygon; the group acts diagonally on .
Many topological properties of are already known: First, it is clear that there is a homeomorphism
Second, it is proved in [2] that is homeomorphic to del Pezzo surface of degree 5.
Third, when is odd, the integral cohomology ring was determined in [3]. We refer to [4] for other properties of , which is an excellent survey of linkages.
In another direction, we consider the space of tuples of equiangular unit vectors in . More precisely, we define the following: We fix and setwhere denotes the standard inner product on . Using (3), we define
It is expected that the space is much more difficult than . For example, the following trivial observation shows that does not admit a similar property to (2): when is odd, we have but .
We claim that is a hypersurface of the torus . In fact, if we forget the condition in (3), the space corresponding to (4) is as observed in [5, 6]. Hence the claim follows.
We recall previous results on . First, [7] considered the case for . The main result is that, realizing as a homotopy colimit of a diagram involving and , we inductively computed . In particular, we obtained a homeomorphism , where denotes a connected closed orientable surface of genus 5.
Second, we set Note that is the configuration space of equilateral and equiangular gons. Crippen [8] studied the topological type of for , and 5. The result is that is either , one point, or two points depending on . Later, O’Hara [9] studied the topological type of . The result is that is disjoint union of a certain number of ’s and points.
The purpose of this paper is to determine the topological type of for , and 5. In contrast to the fact that at most onedimensional spaces appear in the results of [8, 9], surfaces appear in our results.
This paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we state our main results and in Section 3 we prove them.
2. Main Results
Theorem A. The topological type of is given in Table 1.

Theorem B. (i) The topological type of is given in Table 2.
(ii) As approaches , point in Figure 1(a) approaches point .
(a)
(b)
Theorem C. (i) The topological type of is given in Table 3. Let be a connected closed orientable surface of genus .
(ii) (a) Let satisfy that . We study the situation where approaches . We identify the torus with the Dupin cyclide, which we denote by . (See Figure 2.)
Using this, we identify with , where the connected sum is formed by cutting a small circular hole away from the narrow part of . As approaches , the center of each narrow part pinches to a point. Thus the five singular points appear.
(b) We consider the situation where increases from . Then each pinched point of separates. Thus we obtain .
(c) Let satisfy that . We consider the situation where approaches . In contrast to (a), the center of exactly one narrow part pinches to a point. Thus one singular point appears.

Corollary D. As a subspace of , we define the spaceThen is a singular point of and has a neighborhood , where denotes the cone.
Remark 1. Conetype singularities appear in Theorems B and C and Corollary D. We note that singularities of configuration spaces of mechanical linkages have been studied extensively by Blanc and Shvalb [10].
3. Proofs of the Main Results
We fix and set Normalizing and to be and , respectively, we have the following description:Hereafter we use (8).
In order to prove our main results, we use the following fact, whose proof is left to the reader.
Fact 2. Let satisfy thatThen, there exists such that
Now we first consider the case . Consider Fact 2 for , and . Then there exists such that
Next, we consider Fact 2 for , and . Then there exists such that
Finally, we consider Fact 2 for in (12), and . Then there exists such that
Now we define the function byWe can understand as a level set. More precisely, we define the functionby . Then we haveif .
Remark 3. Since for all , and , we have . On the other hand, it is clear that . Hence (17) does not hold for . Apart from this point, there is an identification where is defined in (6).
Lemma 4. We set Then is given in Table 4.
Proof. The lemma is proved by direct computations.
Proof of Theorem C. We consider in (16) as a Morse function on . First, Table 4 and (17) show that .
Second, direct computation shows that Since this is nonzero, the space is smooth at . Actually, we can prove that the point is a nondegenerate critical point of the function . Hence Morse lemma shows that there is a homeomorphism for . But if we use [11, Corollary B], we need not check that is nondegenerate at . For our reference, we draw the figure of in Figure 3.
Third, the other parts of Table 3 follow from Table 4. This completes the proof of Theorem C.
Proof of Corollary D. The corollary is an immediate consequence of Theorem C.
Proof of Theorem B. We define as in (11). We also define to be the righthand side of (12). We define the function by Similarly to (17), we have . Since is onedimensional, it is easy to draw its figure. Thus Theorem B follows.
Proof of Theorem A. We define the function by . Since , Theorem A follows.
Conflicts of Interest
The author declares that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.
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Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Yasuhiko Kamiyama. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.