Table of Contents
Conference Papers in Energy
Volume 2013, Article ID 690627, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/690627
Conference Paper

Hydrogen Production Technologies: Current State and Future Developments

Chemistry Department, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus

Received 9 January 2013; Accepted 31 March 2013

Academic Editors: Y. Al-Assaf and A. Poullikkas

This Conference Paper is based on a presentation given by Christos M. Kalamaras at “Power Options for the Eastern Mediterranean Region” held from 19 November 2012 to 21 November 2012 in Limassol, Cyprus.

Copyright © 2013 Christos M. Kalamaras and Angelos M. Efstathiou. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Hydrogen (H2) is currently used mainly in the chemical industry for the production of ammonia and methanol. Nevertheless, in the near future, hydrogen is expected to become a significant fuel that will largely contribute to the quality of atmospheric air. Hydrogen as a chemical element (H) is the most widespread one on the earth and as molecular dihydrogen (H2) can be obtained from a number of sources both renewable and nonrenewable by various processes. Hydrogen global production has so far been dominated by fossil fuels, with the most significant contemporary technologies being the steam reforming of hydrocarbons (e.g., natural gas). Pure hydrogen is also produced by electrolysis of water, an energy demanding process. This work reviews the current technologies used for hydrogen (H2) production from both fossil and renewable biomass resources, including reforming (steam, partial oxidation, autothermal, plasma, and aqueous phase) and pyrolysis. In addition, other methods for generating hydrogen (e.g., electrolysis of water) and purification methods, such as desulfurization and water-gas shift reactions are discussed.