Table of Contents
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 206073, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/206073
Review Article

Intracellular and Extracellular Effects of S100B in the Cardiovascular Response to Disease

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Keenan Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5B 1W8

Received 1 March 2010; Accepted 6 May 2010

Academic Editor: Rosario Donato

Copyright © 2010 James N. Tsoporis et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

S100B, a calcium-binding protein of the EF-hand type, exerts both intracellular and extracellular functions. S100B is induced in the myocardium of human subjects and an experimental rat model following myocardial infarction. Forced expression of S100B in neonatal rat myocyte cultures and high level expression of S100B in transgenic mice hearts inhibit cardiac hypertrophy and the associated phenotype but augments myocyte apoptosis following myocardial infarction. By contrast, knocking out S100B, augments hypertrophy, decreases apoptosis and preserves cardiac function following myocardial infarction. Expression of S100B in aortic smooth muscle cells inhibits cell proliferation and the vascular response to adrenergic stimulation. S100B induces apoptosis by an extracellular mechanism via interaction with the receptor for advanced glycation end products and activating ERK1/2 and p53 signaling. The intracellular and extracellular roles of S100B are attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of both cardiac and vascular diseases.