Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology / 2010 / Article / Tab 1

Clinical Study

Increased Serum PAI-1 Levels in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome and Long-Term Adverse Mental Symptoms: A Population-Based Study

Table 1

Group characteristics. Values are expressed as counts (%), except age, total cholesterol, BMI, BDI, and PAI-1, which are expressed as means (SEM).

MenWomen

Control ( )Control + MetS ( )LMS + MetS ( )P-value Control ( )Control + MetS ( )LMS + MetS ( )P-value

Age (years)58.24 (1.61)55.80 (2.19)56.67 (1.35).59255.59 (1.17)60.82 (1.79)55.18 (1.84).099
Marital status (single) (%)4 (10)3 (12)8 (19).4305 (7)1 (6)9 (32).004
Total holesterol (mmol/L)4.92 (0.14)4.96 (0.17)5.02 (0.98).8915.19 (0.11)5.17 (0.98)5.03 (0.09).750
BMI (kg/m )24.82 (0.36)29.56 (0.72)29.79 (0.74)<.00125.98 (0.56)31.78 (1.41)32.37 (0.93)<.001
Alcohol consumption (more than 2 × week) (%)13 (31)1 (4)10 (24).0346 (9)4 (24)3 (11).258
Current smokers (%)5 (12)1 (4)13 (31).0166 (9)1 (6)8 (29).098
Cardiovascular disease (%)0 (0)2 (8)2 (5).2235 (7)1 (6)3 (11).358
Lipid-lowering drugs (%)15 (36)9 (36)10 (24).42013 (19)6 (35)8 (29).282
BDI score 20052.73 (0.42)3.12 (0.56)12.76 (1.48)<.0013.86 (0.53)2.59 (0.61)13.54 (1.51)<.001
PAI-1 (ng/mL)29.76 (3.72)43.42 (5.39)49.68 (5.28).00835.40 (3.07)30.00 (5.01)35.34 (5.21).724

P values calculated with one-way ANOVA for age, total cholesterol, BMI, and the BDI score, with the Kruskal-Wallis test for PAI-1 and with the test for alcohol consumption, smoking, marital status, cardiovascular disease, and the consumption of lipid-lowering drugs.
BDI: Beck Depression Inventory
BMI: Body mass index
SEM: Standard error of the mean.