Table of Contents
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology
Volume 2011, Article ID 315068, 6 pages
Research Article

Validation of the Turkish Version of the Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale

1Department of Medical Psychology and Neuropsychology, Center of Research on Psychology in Somatic Diseases [CoRPS], Tilburg University, P.O. Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, The Netherlands
2School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
3Bakirkoy Mental and Neurological Disease Hospital, 34147 Bakırköy, Istanbul, Turkey
4Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, 34098 Fatih, Istanbul, Turkey
5Istanbul Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, 34452 Beyazit, Istanbul, Turkey

Received 25 July 2011; Accepted 11 October 2011

Academic Editor: Richard C. Veith

Copyright © 2011 Elisabeth M. J. Huis In ‘T Veld et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) scale is a widely used self-report measure that can facilitate detection of diabetes-specific emotional distress in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess the factor structure and validity of the Turkish version of the PAID. A validation study was conducted among 154 patients with insulin-naïve type 2 diabetes. Participants completed the PAID, Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Insulin Treatment Appraisal Scale (ITAS), and World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5) questionnaires. Exploratory factor analyses yielded a 2-factor structure, identifying a 15-item “diabetes distress” factor and a 5-item “support-related issues” factor. The total PAID-score and the two dimensions were associated with higher levels of depression and poor emotional well-being. In the present study, the Turkish version of the PAID had satisfactory psychometric properties, however, the factorial structure was found to differ from factor solutions from other countries.