Table of Contents
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 875876, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/875876
Clinical Study

Ways of Coping and Biomarkers of an Increased Atherothrombotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Elderly Individuals

1Division of Psychosomatic Medicine, Department of General Internal Medicine, Bern University Hospital and University of Bern, 3010 Bern, Switzerland
2Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0680, USA
3Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92103-8341, USA
4San Diego State University Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093, USA
5Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0817, USA

Received 6 April 2012; Accepted 22 May 2012

Academic Editor: Heimo ViinamaKi

Copyright © 2012 Roland von Känel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. S. Lazarus and S. Folkman, Stress, Appraisal, and Coping, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1984.
  2. H. Weiner, Perturbing the Organism: The Biology of Stressful Experience, University of Chicago Press, 1992.
  3. C. M. Aldwin and C. L. Park, “Coping and physical health outcomes: an overview,” Psychology and Health, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 277–281, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. E. A. Skinner, K. Edge, J. Altman, and H. Sherwood, “Searching for the structure of coping: a review and critique of category systems for classifying ways of coping,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 129, no. 2, pp. 216–269, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. Folkman and R. S. Lazarus, “If it changes, it must be a process: study of emotion and coping during three stages of a college examination,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 150–170, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. Folkman, R. S. Lazarus, C. Dunkel-Schetter, A. DeLongis, and R. J. Gruen, “Dynamics of a stressful encounter: cognitive appraisal, coping, and encounter outcomes,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 992–1003, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. P. Vitaliano, J. Russo, J. E. Carr, R. D. Maiuro, and J. Becker, “The ways of coping checklist: revision and psychometric properties,” Multivariate Behavioral Research, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 3–26, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. J. A. Penley, J. Tomaka, and J. S. Wiebe, “The association of coping to physical and psychological health outcomes: a meta-analytic review,” Journal of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 551–603, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. J. Stewart, A. M. Hirth, G. Klassen, L. Makrides, and H. Wolf, “Stress, coping, and social support as psychosocial factors in readmissions for ischaemic heart disease,” International Journal of Nursing Studies, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 151–163, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. du Plessis, L. Malan, and N. T. Malan, “Coping and metabolic syndrome indicators in urban black South African men: the SABPA study,” Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 268–273, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. K. B. Koh, E. Choe, J. E. Song, and E. H. Lee, “Effect of coping on endocrinoimmune functions in different stress situations,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 143, no. 2-3, pp. 223–234, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. P. P. Vitaliano, J. Zhang, and J. M. Scanlan, “Is caregiving hazardous to one's physical health? A meta-analysis,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 129, no. 6, pp. 946–972, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Cohen, “Psychosocial models of the role of social support in the etiology of physical disease,” Health Psychology, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 269–297, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. P. P. Vitaliano, J. M. Scanlan, J. Zhang, M. V. Savage, I. B. Hirsch, and I. C. Siegler, “A path model of chronic stress, the metabolic syndrome, and coronary heart disease,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 418–435, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. von Känel, B. T. Mausbach, T. L. Patterson et al., “Increased Framingham coronary heart disease risk score in dementia caregivers relative to non-caregiving controls,” Gerontology, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 131–137, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. B. T. Mausbach, S. K. Roepke, M. G. Ziegler et al., “Association between chronic caregiving stress and impaired endothelial function in the elderly,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 55, no. 23, pp. 2599–2606, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. Libby, “Inflammation in atherosclerosis,” Nature, vol. 420, no. 6917, pp. 868–874, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. S. Vasan, “Biomarkers of cardiovascular disease: molecular basis and practical considerations,” Circulation, vol. 113, no. 19, pp. 2335–2362, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. B. Howren, D. M. Lamkin, and J. Suls, “Associations of depression with c-reactive protein, IL-1, and IL-6: a meta-analysis,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 171–186, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. V. Chobanian, G. L. Bakris, H. R. Black et al., “Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure,” Hypertension, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 1206–1252, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. T. D. Topolski, J. LoGerfo, D. L. Patrick, B. Williams, J. Walwick, and M. B. Patrick, “The rapid assessment of physical activity (RAPA) among older adults,” Preventing Chronic Disease, vol. 3, no. 4, article A118, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. J. Buysse, C. F. Reynolds III, T. H. Monk, C. C. Hoch, A. L. Yeager, and D. J. Kupfer, “Quantification of subjective sleep quality in healthy elderly men and women using the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI),” Sleep, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 331–338, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. D. Watson, L. A. Clark, and A. Tellegen, “Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 1063–1070, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. I. G. Sarason, J. H. Johnson, and J. M. Siegel, “Assessing the impact of life changes: development of the life experiences survey,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 932–946, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. L. I. Pearlin, J. T. Mullan, S. J. Semple, and M. M. Skaff, “Caregiving and the stress process: an overview of concepts and their measures,” Gerontologist, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 583–594, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. B. Kennedy and M. G. Ziegler, “A more sensitive and specific radioenzymatic assay for catecholamines,” Life Sciences, vol. 47, no. 23, pp. 2143–2153, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. E. McKellar, D. W. McCarey, N. Sattar, and I. B. McInnes, “Role for TNF in atherosclerosis? Lessons from autoimmune disease,” Nature Reviews in Cardiology, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 410–417, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. N. Sarwar, A. J. Thompson, and E. Di Angelantonio, “Markers of inflammation and risk of coronary heart disease,” Disease Markers, vol. 26, no. 5-6, pp. 217–225, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. Apostolakis, K. Vogiatzi, V. Amanatidou, and D. A. Spandidos, “Interleukin 8 and cardiovascular disease,” Cardiovascular Research, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 353–360, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. K. Schroecksnadel, B. Frick, C. Winkler, and D. Fuchs, “Crucial role of interferon-γ and stimulated macrophages in cardiovascular disease,” Current Vascular Pharmacology, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 205–213, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. Mahmoudi, N. Curzen, and P. J. Gallagher, “Atherogenesis: the role of inflammation and infection,” Histopathology, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 535–546, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. A. Hope and I. T. Meredith, “Cellular adhesion molecules and cardiovascular disease. Part II. Their association with conventional and emerging risk factors, acute coronary events and cardiovascular risk prediction,” Internal Medicine Journal, vol. 33, no. 9-10, pp. 450–462, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. E. Thorin and D. J. Webb, “Endothelium-derived endothelin-1,” Pflügers Archiv European Journal of Physiology, vol. 459, no. 6, pp. 951–958, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. P. Paulinska, A. Spiel, and B. Jilma, “Role of von Willebrand factor in vascular disease,” Hamostaseologie, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 32–38, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. D. E. Vaughan, “PAI-1 and atherothrombosis,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 1879–1883, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. G. D. O. Lowe, “Fibrin D-dimer and cardiovascular risk,” Seminars in Vascular Medicine, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 387–398, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. H. C. Kraemer and C. M. Blasey, “Centring in regression analyses: a strategy to prevent errors in statistical inference,” International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 141–151, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. G. N. Holmbeck, “Post-hoc probing of significant moderational and mediational effects in studies of pediatric populations,” Journal of Pediatric Psychology, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 87–96, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. Y. Zhao, X. He, X. Shi et al., “Association between serum amyloid A and obesity: a meta-analysis and systematic review,” Inflammation Research, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 323–334, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. T. Willerson and P. M. Ridker, “Inflammation as a cardiovascular risk factor,” Circulation, vol. 109, no. 21, pp. II2–II10, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. G. J. Blake and P. M. Ridker, “Novel clinical markers of vascular wall inflammation,” Circulation Research, vol. 89, no. 9, pp. 763–771, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. E. B. Smith, G. A. Keen, A. Grant, and C. Stirk, “Fate of fibrinogen in human arterial intima,” Arteriosclerosis, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 263–275, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. C. Strell, A. Sievers, P. Bastian et al., “Divergent effects of norepinephrine, dopamine and substance P on the activation, differentiation and effector functions of human cytotoxic T lymphocytes,” BMC Immunology, vol. 10, article 62, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. Dockray and A. Steptoe, “Positive affect and psychobiological processes,” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 69–75, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. L. D. Kubzansky and R. C. Thurston, “Emotional vitality and incident coronary heart disease: benefits of healthy psychological functioning,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 64, no. 12, pp. 1393–1401, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. Barth, S. Schneider, and R. von Känel, “Lack of social support in the etiology and the prognosis of coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 229–238, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. L. Lévesque, C. Gendron, J. Vézina et al., “The process of a group intervention for caregivers of demented persons living at home: conceptual framework, components, and characteristics,” Aging and Mental Health, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 239–247, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. S. K. Roepke, B. T. Mausbach, K. Aschbacher et al., “Personal mastery is associated with reduced sympathetic arousal in stressed Alzheimer caregivers,” American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 310–317, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. B. T. Mausbach, K. Aschbacher, P. J. Mills et al., “A 5-year longitudinal study of the relationships between stress, coping, and immune cell β2-adrenergic receptor sensitivity,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 160, no. 3, pp. 247–255, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus