Table of Contents
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology
Volume 2014, Article ID 656341, 6 pages
Research Article

Duration of Type 2 Diabetes and Very Low Density Lipoprotein Levels Are Associated with Cognitive Dysfunction in Metabolic Syndrome

1Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
2Department of Psychology, Kent State University, 238 Kent Hall Addition, Kent, OH 44242, USA

Received 20 January 2014; Accepted 30 May 2014; Published 25 June 2014

Academic Editor: Koichi Hirata

Copyright © 2014 Divya Yogi-Morren et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is now recognized as an independent risk factor for accelerated cognitive decline and neurological conditions like Alzheimer’s disease. Less is known about the neurocognitive function of T2D patients with comorbid metabolic syndrome, despite their elevated risk for impairment. Computerized testing in 47 adults with T2D that met criteria for NCEP metabolic syndrome revealed that cognitive impairment was prevalent, including 13% in tests of memory, 50% in attention, and 35% in executive function. Partial correlations showed that longer duration of diabetes was associated with poorer performance on tests of basic attention ( ), working memory ( ), and executive function ( ). Strong associations between very low density lipoprotein and poor cognitive function also emerged, including tests of set shifting ( ) and cognitive inhibition ( ). Findings suggest that patients with T2D that meet criteria for metabolic syndrome are at high risk for cognitive impairment. Prospective studies should look to replicate these findings and examine the possible neuroprotective effects of lipid-lowering medication in this population.