Table of Contents
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 4720941, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4720941
Research Article

Subclinical Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms: Relationships with Blood Pressure, Hostility, and Sleep

1Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA
2University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Greenville, SC 29605, USA
3University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29209, USA

Received 30 March 2016; Accepted 25 May 2016

Academic Editor: Koichi Hirata

Copyright © 2016 James A. McCubbin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), American Psychiatric Publications, 2013.
  2. E. B. Blanchard, “Elevated basal levels of cardiovascular responses in Vietnam veterans with PTSD: a health problem in the making?” Journal of Anxiety Disorders, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 233–237, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. T. C. Buckley and D. G. Kaloupek, “A meta-analytic examination of basal cardiovascular activity in posttraumatic stress disorder,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 585–594, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. Y. Muraoka, J. G. Carlson, and C. M. Chemtob, “Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate monitoring in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder,” Journal of Traumatic Stress, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 473–484, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. U. Orth and E. Wieland, “Anger, hostility, and posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults: a meta-analysis,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 698–706, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. B. A. Van der Kolk, “The psychobiology and psychopharmacology of PTSD,” Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. S49–S64, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. T. G. M. Vrijkotte, L. J. P. Van Doornen, and E. J. C. De Geus, “Effects of work stress on ambulatory blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability,” Hypertension, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 880–886, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C. Drake, G. Richardson, T. Roehrs, H. Scofield, and T. Roth, “Vulnerability to stress-related sleep disturbance and hyperarousal,” Sleep, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 285–291, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. Bruehl, J. A. McCubbin, C. R. Carlson et al., “The psychobiology of hostility: possible endogenous opioid mechanisms,” International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 163–176, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. K. A. Lawler, T. L. Harralson, C. A. Armstead, and L. A. Schmied, “Gender and cardiovascular responses: what is the role of hostility?” Journal of Psychosomatic Research, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 603–613, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. T. Wu, H. Snieder, and E. de Geus, “Genetic influences on cardiovascular stress reactivity,” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 58–68, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. G. Weidner, R. Friend, T. J. Ficarrotto, and N. R. Mendell, “Hostility and cardiovascular reactivity to stress in women and men,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 36–45, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. F. Dollard and A. H. Winefield, “A test of the demand-control/support model of work stress in correctional officers,” Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 243–264, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. A. McCubbin, R. Cheung, T. B. Montgomery, R. Bulbulian, and J. F. Wilson, “Aerobic fitness and opioidergic inhibition of cardiovascular stress reactivity,” Psychophysiology, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 687–697, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. A. McCubbin, J. J. Pilcher, and D. D. Moore, “Blood pressure increases during a simulated night shift in persons at risk for hypertension,” International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 314–320, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. Heim, D. J. Newport, R. Bonsall, A. H. Miller, and C. B. Nemeroff, “Altered pituitary-adrenal axis responses to provocative challenge tests in adult survivors of childhood abuse,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 158, no. 4, pp. 575–581, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. Ibarra, S. P. Bruehl, J. A. McCubbin et al., “An unusual reaction to opioid blockade with naltrexone in a case of post-traumatic stress disorder,” Journal of Traumatic Stress, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 303–309, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. B. A. van der Kolk, “The psychobiology and psychopharmacology of PTSD,” Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. S49–S64, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. C. McFarlane, “Posttraumatic stress disorder: a model of the longitudinal course and the role of risk factors,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 15–23, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. M. Southwick, S. R. Paige, C. A. Morgan, J. D. Bremner, J. H. Krystal, and D. S. Charney, “Adrenergic and serotonergic abnormalities,” Seminars in Clinical Neuropsychiatry, vol. 4, pp. 242–248, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  21. M. E. McFall, R. C. Veith, and M. M. Murburg, “Basal sympathoadrenal function in posttraumatic distress disorder,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 1050–1056, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. M. Murburg, M. E. McFall, G. N. Ko, and R. C. Veith, “Stress-induced alterations in plasma catecholamines and sympathetic nervous system function in PTSD,” in Catecholamine Function in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Emerging Concepts, pp. 189–202, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  23. J. L. Kibler, K. Joshi, and M. Ma, “Hypertension in relation to posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in the us national comorbidity survey,” Behavioral Medicine, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 125–131, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. C. Beckham, A. M. Flood, M. F. Dennis, and P. S. Calhoun, “Ambulatory cardiovascular activity and hostility ratings in women with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 268–272, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. C. Barefoot, W. G. Dahlstrom, and R. B. Williams, “Hostility, CHD incidence, and total mortality: a 25-year follow-up study of 255 physicians,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 59–63, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. T. G. Pickering, J. E. Hall, L. J. Appel et al., “Recommendations for blood pressure measurement in humans and experimental animals: part 1: blood pressure measurement in humans: a statement for professionals from the subcommittee of professional and public education of the American Heart Association Council on High Blood Pressure Research,” Hypertension, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 142–161, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. F. W. Weathers, B. T. Litz, D. Herman, J. Huska, and T. Keane, The PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C), National Center for PTSD, Boston, Mass, USA, 1994.
  28. D. J. Buysse, M. L. Hall, P. J. Strollo et al., “Relationships between the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and clinical/polysomnographic measures in a community sample,” Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 563–571, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. C. Barefoot, K. A. Dodge, B. L. Peterson, W. G. Dahlstrom, and R. B. Williams Jr., “The Cook-Medley hostility scale: item content and ability to predict survival,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 46–57, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. K. J. Ruggiero, K. Del Ben, J. R. Scotti, and A. E. Rabalais, “Psychometric properties of the PTSD checklist—civilian version,” Journal of Traumatic Stress, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 495–502, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. E. B. Blanchard, J. Jones-Alexander, T. C. Buckley, and C. A. Forneris, “Psychometric properties of the PTSD checklist (PCL),” Behaviour Research and Therapy, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 669–673, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. R. Freedy and C. D. Brock, “Spotting- and treating—PTSD in primary care,” Journal of Family Practice, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 75–80, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. E. McDevitt-Murphy, F. W. Weathers, J. W. Adkins, and J. B. Daniels, “Use of the personality assessment inventory in assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder in women,” Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 57–65, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. Y. Huang, W. Mai, Y. Hu et al., “Poor sleep quality, stress status, and sympathetic nervous system activation in nondipping hypertension,” Blood Pressure Monitoring, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 117–123, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. T. W. Smith and K. D. Frohm, “What's so unhealthy about hostility? Construct validity and psychosocial correlates of the Cook and Medley Ho scale,” Health Psychology, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 503–520, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. M. Baron and D. A. Kenny, “The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research. conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 1173–1182, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. L. Coker, R. Weston, D. L. Creson, B. Justice, and P. Blakeney, “PTSD symptoms among men and women survivors of intimate partner violence: the role of risk and protective factors,” Violence and Victims, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 625–643, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. M. Steenkamp, A. Nickerson, S. Maguen, B. D. Dickstein, W. P. Nash, and B. T. Litz, “Latent classes of PTSD symptoms in Vietnam veterans,” Behavior Modification, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 857–874, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. M. Smyth, J. R. Hockemeyer, K. E. Heron, S. A. Wonderlich, and J. W. Pennebaker, “Prevalence, type, disclosure, and severity of adverse life events in college students,” Journal of American College Health, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 69–76, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. E. Gangwisch, S. B. Heymsfield, B. Boden-Albala et al., “Short sleep duration as a risk factor for hypertension: analyses of the first National Health and Nutrition Examination survey,” Hypertension, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 833–839, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. D. J. Gottlieb, S. Redline, F. J. Nieto et al., “Association of usual sleep duration with hypertension: the Sleep Heart Health Study,” Sleep, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1009–1014, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. K. L. Knutson, E. Van Cauter, P. J. Rathouz et al., “Association between sleep and blood pressure in midlife: The CARDIA Sleep Study,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 169, no. 11, pp. 1055–1061, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. K. Spiegel, R. Leproult, and E. Van Cauter, “Impact of sleep debt on metabolic and endocrine function,” The Lancet, vol. 354, no. 9188, pp. 1435–1439, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. Y. Ogawa, T. Kanbayashi, Y. Saito et al., “Total sleep deprivation elevates blood pressure through arterial baroreflex resetting: a study with microneurographic technique,” Sleep, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 986–989, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. H. Bonnet and D. L. Arand, “Heart rate variability in insomniacs and matched normal sleepers,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 610–615, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. C. Davis, K. A. Matthews, and C. E. McGrath, “Hostile attitudes predict elevated vascular resistance during interpersonal stress in men and women,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 17–25, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. G. D. Bishop, D. Kaur, V. L. M. Tan, Y.-L. Chua, S.-M. Liew, and K.-H. Mak, “Effects of a psychosocial skills training workshop on psychophysiological and psychosocial risk in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting,” American Heart Journal, vol. 150, no. 3, pp. 602–609, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. K. Orth-Gomér, N. Schneiderman, H.-X. Wang, C. Walldin, M. Blom, and T. Jernberg, “Stress reduction prolongs life in women with coronary disease: the Stockholm women's intervention trial for coronary heart disease (SWITCHD),” Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 25–32, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. M. Gulliksson, G. Burell, B. Vessby, L. Lundin, H. Toss, and K. Svärdsudd, “Randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy vs standard treatment to prevent recurrent cardiovascular events in patients with coronary heart disease: secondary prevention in Uppsala primary health care project (SUPRIM),” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 171, no. 2, pp. 134–140, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. V. P. Williams, S. L. Brenner, M. J. Helms, and R. B. Williams, “Coping skills training to reduce psychosocial risk factors for medical disorders: a field trial evaluating effectiveness in multiple worksites,” Journal of Occupational Health, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 437–442, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. E. Taylor, L. C. Klein, B. P. Lewis, T. L. Gruenewald, R. A. R. Gurung, and J. A. Updegraff, “Biobehavioral responses to stress in females: tend-and-befriend, not fight-or-flight,” Psychological Review, vol. 107, no. 3, pp. 411–429, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus