Table 2: Gas chromatographic methods developed on for detection of SSRIs, SNRIs, and their metabolites.

MatrixAnalyteExtraction methodDetector systemSensitivityReferences

Mass detector
UrineFLX, VLF, SER, and CITSPEEI-MSLOD, 2, 0.02, 1.25, and 10  g/mL for FLX, VLF, SER, and CIT[16]
Plasma CIT, DCIT, DDCIT, FLX, and NFLXSPEMSLOD = 0.7 to 33.6  g/mL[55]
PlasmaCIT, DCIT, DDCIT, SER, DSER, and PARLLEMSLOQ = 2 ng/mL for CIT and PAR, 1 ng/mL for SER, 0.5 ng/mL for DSER, DCIT, and DDCIT[56]
UrineFLV, FLX, SER, VLF, and CITSPMEMS (ESI mode) LOD < 0.4 ng/mL[57]
BloodVLF, FLX, FLV, CIT, and SERLLEMS (ESI in SIM mode)LOD = <10, 25, 25, <10, 4 ng/mL, and LOQ = 25, 50, 25, 25, 50, 25, 20 ng/mL for VLF, FLV, LX, CIT, and SER, respectively[58]
Oral fluidSERSPEMS in SIM mode.LOD = 18.6 ng/mL[60]
PlasmaVLF, CIT, FLX, FLV, SER, PAR, DFLX, DSER, DCIT, and DDCITSPEMass (ESI and Chemical Ionisation (PCI*/NCI* source) in SIM mode)LOQ = 5 to 12.5 ng/mL in ESI and PICI mode and LOQ = 1 to 6.25 ng/mL in NCI mode[97]
PlasmaCIT, DCIT, and DDCIT LLEMSLOQ = 1 to 2 ng/mL[98]

Other detectors
SerumCIT and DCITLLENPDLOQ = 10–20 mg/L[63]
BloodCITSPENPDLOQ = 70 ng/mL[99]
UrineCIT, FLX, FLV, SER, and PARSPEFIDLOQ = 91.7, 64.9, 100.3, and 61.4 and 95.1  g/L for CIT, FLX, FLV, SER, and PAR, respectively[100]
PlasmaCIT, PAR, DLX, FLX, and SERIn-tube SPMEUVLOQ = 50 to 500 ng/mL[101]

Abbreviations*: PCI: Positive Chemical Ionization, NCI: Negative Chemical Ionization.