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Case Reports in Pathology
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 7510323, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7510323
Case Report

Postpartum Granulomatous Hypophysitis: A Case Study, Review of the Literature, and Discussion of Pathogenesis

1Department of Pathology, Cell Biology and Anatomy, Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals, Philadelphia, PA, USA
2Department of Cancer Biology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals, Philadelphia, PA, USA
3Department of Neurosurgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Received 24 May 2016; Accepted 31 July 2016

Academic Editor: Piero Tosi

Copyright © 2016 Upasana Joneja et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Hypophysitis is a rare inflammatory condition of the pituitary gland that has three main histologic subtypes: lymphocytic hypophysitis (LH), granulomatous hypophysitis (GH), and xanthomatous hypophysitis (XH). Among these, LH is the most common and is strongly associated with the postpartum state, while XH is the least common. Many hypophysitis cases have been reported in the literature but only a few cases of postpartum GH have been discussed. Here, we describe a case of GH in a 24-year-old female presenting eleven days postpartum. We also review the current literature on postpartum GH and discuss the possible alterations in the immune environment during and after pregnancy that could explain this phenomenon. With more cases of GH being reported, the commonalities of female predominance, postpartum time of presentation, and occasional spontaneous resolution between LH and GH lend support to the theory that these two diseases likely represent spectrums of a single immunologic disorder.