Case Reports in Pathology

Case Reports in Pathology / 2018 / Article

Case Report | Open Access

Volume 2018 |Article ID 6892783 | 4 pages | https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/6892783

A Rare Malignant Transformation of an Ovarian Cystic Teratoma: A Case Report

Academic Editor: Stefan Pambuccian
Received08 Mar 2018
Accepted14 Jun 2018
Published09 Jul 2018

Abstract

Mature cystic teratoma (MCT) is the commonest germ cell neoplasm of the ovary but malignant transformation is a rare occurrence (1-2%). Of these malignancies documented in literature the commonest are squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Urothelial carcinomas arising in an MCT are a rare occurrence and only 7 cases have been reported in literature. We report a case of an MCT which was complicated by the presence of urothelial carcinoma confirmed on histopathological examination.

1. Introduction

According to the 2014 WHO classification, mature cystic teratomas (MCT) constitute approximately 20% of all ovarian neoplasms also being the commonest germ cell tumor [1]. They are tumors which can form mature tissues derived from ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm and are usually cystic [2]. The majority of these tumors are benign with malignant transformation being rare and reported in only 1-2% of cases [3, 4]. Among the malignant transformations, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma are the most commonly reported [5]. Urothelial carcinomas arising in an MCT is rare [39]. This is a report of such a case in a 50-year-old lady.

2. Case Report

A 50-year-old lady presented to the Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences Hospital at Puducherry, India, with a complaint of acute abdominal pain. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) demonstrated the presence of bilateral ovarian mature cystic teratomas. Contrast enhancement within the right ovarian cyst suggested the possibility of malignant transformation (Figure 1). Tumor marker carbohydrate antigen- (CA-) 125 was 27 IU/mL (normal <35 IU/mL). She underwent total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy.

Gross examination showed the right ovary to be cystic and measured 12cms in diameter and is predominantly smooth except for an area of 3cm2 which had blunt pale soft projections (Figure 2). The left ovary was grossly normal measuring 3cms in greatest diameter.

Microscopically the left and right ovary showed various mature tissues including bronchial mucosa, apocrine glands, cartilage, and skin with adnexal structures. The microscopy of the soft pale projections of the right ovary had papillary structures with fibrovascular cores which were lined by transitional epithelium exhibiting nuclear pleomorphism, hyperchromatism, and increased mitotic activity (Figure 3). There was evidence of invasion of the ovarian stroma by nests of malignant epithelial cells (Figure 4). The inked ovarian capsular surface was free of tumor. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of the urothelial carcinoma showed cytoplasmic and membrane positivity for Uroplakin II (Figure 5). A diagnosis of ovarian cystic teratoma with primary invasive urothelial carcinoma (TNM stage pT1aNxMx) was made based on the Pathological Stage Classification by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) edition [10].

The patient was reviewed till 3 months following surgery and follow-up CECT revealed no evidence of recurrent tumor in the abdomen and pelvis.

3. Discussion

Urothelial carcinomas complicating an MCT is rare and only 7 such cases have been reported in literature so far [39]. The diagnosis of primary invasive urothelial carcinoma in the present case was made by morphology and immunohistochemically demonstrating Uroplakin II in the malignant cells.

A review of the salient features of the 7 prior cases and that of the present patient is presented in Table 1 [39].


StudyAgeMenopauseSymptoms Tumor size (cm)LateralityTumor marker elevatedFIGO stagePrimary surgeryFurther TreatmentFollow-up

Lee et al, 1999 [9]67PostVoiding difficulty, lower abdominal pain14x7x5LeftCA-125
CA 19-9
ICTAH+BSO+omentectomyChemotherapy; carboplatin, etoposideNED 5 months

Kido et al, 1999 [5]48NANANANANAICNANANDA

Yamaguchi et al, 2007 [3]48NAAbdominal mass20LeftCA-125
CEA
SCC
IATAH+BSO+omentectomyNED 10y

Rayyan et al, 2009 [4]45PrePain, bleeding8LeftNAIALSOSurgical StagingNED>5 y

Lee & Lee, 2010 [7]52PreAbdominal mass22x19x5RightNAIARSONANED 15 mo

Chuang et al, 2015 [8]54PostAbdominal mass20x13x21RightCA-125,
CA 19-9
IATAH+BSO+omentectomy+BPLANoneNED 8 mo

Dasgupta et al, 2015 [6]50PostPain and abdominal swelling11x9x6RightCA-125IATAH+BSONoneNED

Present case50NAPain12x8x5Right-IATAH+BSONoneNED 3 mo

BPLA= bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy, BSO= bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, FIGO= International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology, LSO= left salpingo-oophorectomy, NA= not available, NDA=no data available, NED=no evidence of disease, RSO= right salpingo-oophorectomy, and TAH= total abdominal hysterectomy.

Studies by Al-Rayyan et al. and Kikkawa et al. showed varying number of patients with malignant transformation of an ovarian MCT who were postmenopausal or premenopausal thus indicating that menopause itself does not pose as a risk factor for malignant transformation in an MCT [4, 11]. Older age group ( >45 years), elevated levels of CA-125 (35 IU/mL), preoperative tumor size (>9.9cm), and characteristic imaging findings were noted as independent risk factors for malignant transformation of an MCT [3, 11, 12]. The present case differed in that no elevation of CA-125 (27 IU/mL) was noted unlike majority of the previous cases [39].

The pathogenesis of urothelial carcinoma in an MCT was hypothesized in two studies from Korea which noted the presence of normal urothelium adjacent to the urothelial carcinoma hence suggesting that prolonged and persistent irritation of the urothelium by lipid material induced the secondary carcinomatous change [7, 9].

Lee et al and Dasgupta et al. stated the importance of differentiating the urothelial carcinoma arising in an MCT from a primary transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary (TCC-O) which is a subtype of surface epithelial tumors [6, 7]. Lee stated that the urothelial carcinoma of the urinary tract expressed Uroplakin III but is negative for WT1. On the contrary TCC-O is negative for Uroplakin III and positive for WT1 [7]. Smith et al. and Li et al. in 2014 showed that Uroplakin II is a more sensitive immunohistochemical marker than Uroplakin III for detecting urothelial carcinoma of the urinary tract [13, 14]. In the present case the urothelial carcinoma arising in the MCT showed cytoplasmic and membrane positive staining for Uroplakin II suggesting its origin from the urothelium of the teratoma. The possibility of metastatic deposits from a primary urinary tract carcinoma was ruled out by radiological evaluation showing no lesion in the urinary system. Hence a diagnosis of primary invasive urothelial carcinoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma of the ovary was made.

4. Conclusion

Malignant transformation in an MCT is a rare complication but must be suspected in high risk cases of age > 45 years, size larger than 9cm, and elevated tumor marker CA-125 levels. Urothelial carcinomas arising in an MCT of ovary is a rare occurrence and to the best of our knowledge this is the eighth such case reported in literature.

Data Availability

The authors declare that the data cited in this report are available in the references mentioned in this paper and can be accessed from Pubmed.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.

References

  1. R. J. Kurman, M. L. Carcangiu, C. S. Herrington, and R. H. Young, Eds., WHO Classification of Tumours of Female Reproductive Organs, IARC, Lyon, 2014.
  2. Rosai J and L. V. Ackerman, “Ovary,” in Rosai and Ackermans Surgical Pathology, pp. 1553–1635, Elsevier, New Delhi, India, 10th edition, 2011. View at: Google Scholar
  3. K. Yamaguchi, M. Mandai, K. Fukuhara et al., “Malignant transformation of mature cystic teratoma of the ovary including three cases occurring during follow-up period,” Oncology Reports, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 705–711, 2008. View at: Google Scholar
  4. E. S. Al-Rayyan, W. J. Duqoum, M. S. Sawalha et al., “Secondary malignancies in ovarian dermoid cyst,” Saudi Medical Journal, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 524–528, 2009. View at: Google Scholar
  5. A. Kido, K. Togashi, I. Konishi et al., “Dermoid cysts of the ovary with malignant transformation: MR appearance,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 172, no. 2, pp. 445–449, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  6. S. Dasgupta, D. Bose, N. Bhattacharyya, and P. Biswas, “Mature cystic teratoma with malignant transformation of teratomatous urothelial cells: Rare case presentation,” Clinical Cancer Investigation Journal, vol. 4, no. 4, p. 534, 2015. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  7. O.-J. Lee and H.-C. Lee, “Urothelial (Transitional Cell) carcinoma arising in mature cystic teratoma: A case report,” The Korean Journal of Pathology, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 666–669, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  8. H.-Y. Chuang, Y.-T. Chen, T.-L. Mac et al., “Urothelial carcinoma arising from an ovarian mature cystic teratoma,” Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 442–444, 2015. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  9. H. H. Lee, J. Y. Shim, and C. Lee, “A case of papillary transitional cell carcinoma arising from the benign cystic teratoma of ovary,” Korean Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 42, pp. 1123–1126, 1999. View at: Google Scholar
  10. S. Movahedi-Lankarani, “Protocol for the examination of specimens from patients with primary tumors of the ovary, fallopian tube or peritoneum,” College of American Pathologists, 2017. View at: Google Scholar
  11. F. Kikkawa, A. Nawa, K. Tamakoshi et al., “Diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma arising from mature cystic teratoma of the ovary,” Cancer, vol. 82, no. 11, pp. 2249–2255, 1998. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  12. G. W. H. Stamp and E. M. McConnell, “Malignancy arising in cystic ovarian teratomas,” BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, vol. 90, no. 7, pp. 671–675, 1983. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  13. S. C. Smith, S. K. Mohanty, L. P. Kunju et al., “Uroplakin II outperforms uroplakin III in diagnostically challenging settings,” Histopathology, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 132–138, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  14. W. Li, Y. Liang, M. T. Deavers et al., “Uroplakin II is a more sensitive immunohistochemical marker than uroplakin III in urothelial carcinoma and its variants,” American Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 142, no. 6, pp. 864–871, 2014. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar

Copyright © 2018 Manju Rachel Mathew et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

822 Views | 322 Downloads | 1 Citation
 PDF  Download Citation  Citation
 Download other formatsMore
 Order printed copiesOrder

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly and safely as possible. Any author submitting a COVID-19 paper should notify us at help@hindawi.com to ensure their research is fast-tracked and made available on a preprint server as soon as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted articles related to COVID-19. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.