Case Reports in Rheumatology / 2017 / Article / Tab 2

Case Report

Hypokalemic Paralysis due to Primary Sjögren Syndrome: Case Report and Review of the Literature

Table 2

Comparative treatment in hypokalemic paralysis due to distal RTA in Sjögren syndrome patients.

ReferenceType of studyNumber of patientsAge (years)
Extraglandular manifestations besides dRTATreatmentFollow-upOutcome

Goroshi et al.Case series1333.1Arthritis, arthralgias, vasculitisSymptomatic
Extraglandular: HCQ and MTX
2.8 years (0.5–4)No improvement in reduction of HCO3 or K requirements

Khadgawat et al.Report of cases220.5NoSymptomaticNot reported

Soy et al.Case report139Arthralgia, myalgia, nephrolithiasisSymptomatic and methylprednisolone2 yearsStable clinical evolution

Cheng et al.Report of cases276NephrocalcinosisSymptomatic and prednisolone5–12 monthsStable clinical evolution

Kawashima et al.Case report139Osteomalacia, interstitial nephritisSymptomatic and prednisolone2 yearsRelapse after stopping treatment

Comer et al.Case report143NoSymptomatic2 yearsStable clinical evolution

Seirafian et al.Case report164NoSymptomatic, prednisolone, and HCQNot reported

Vaidya and Ganeshpure Case report123NoSymptomatic1.5 yearsStable clinical evolution

Sarah et al.Report of cases235NoSymptomaticNot reported

Rao et al.Report of cases337Not reportedSymptomaticNot reported

Nail et al.Case report165NoSymptomaticNot reported

Rajagopala et al.Case report136Medullary nephrocalcinosis, recurrent CNS demyelination, neuromyelitis optica Secondary APS with thrombosisSymptomatic, methylprednisolone, prednisolone, CYC, and AZA3 monthsStable clinical evolution

Palkar et al.Case report158Low-grade feverSymptomaticNot reportedStable clinical evolution

Dasari et al.Case report140NoSymptomatic and prednisolone6 monthsStable clinical evolution

Singhvi et al.Case report130NoSymptomatic and prednisolone6 monthsStable clinical evolution

Chang et al.Report of cases210One patient: carotid artery stenosisSymptomatic3–6 yearsOne patient: four relapses

Eriksson et al.Report of cases664.6Not reportedNo reportedNot reported

Taylor and Parsons Case report155NoSymptomaticNot reported

Carminati et al.Case report132NoSymptomaticNot reported

Muthukrishnan et al.Case report139NoSymptomatic and prednisolone2 yearsStable clinical evolution

Prakash et al.Case report149NoSymptomatic, methylprednisolone, prednisolone16 daysDied

Skalova et al.Case report116NoSymptomatic, methylprednisolone, CYLNot reportedStable clinical evolution

Liao et al.Case report149Not reportedSymptomaticNot reported

Sengul et al.Case report148NoSymptomatic, prednisolone, HCQNot reported

Yilmaz et al.Case report153NoSymptomatic, methylprednisolone, HCQ, AZA10 daysStable clinical evolution

Logan and AhmedCase report136NoSymptomatic, HCQ3 yearsStable clinical evolution

Fujimoto et al.Case report127Kidney lithiasisSymptomatic4 monthsStable clinical evolution

Mugundhan et al.Case report138NephrocalcinosisSymptomatic and prednisoloneNot reported

Garza-Alpirez et al.Case report131PolyarthralgiasSymptomatic, HCQ8 monthsStable clinical evolution

Symptomatic: potassium (K) and bicarbonate (HCO3); HCQ: hydroxychloroquine; MTX: methotrexate; CYC: cyclophosphamide; AZA: azathioprine; MM: mycophenolate mofetil; CYL: cyclosporine A; APS: antiphospholipid syndrome; extraglandular manifestation: arthritis, arthralgia, and vasculitis.