Table of Contents
Developmental Biology Journal
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 432043, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/432043
Research Article

Cooperation of Nectin-1 and Nectin-3 Is Required for Maintenance of Epidermal Stratification and Proper Hair Shaft Formation in the Mouse

1Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cyo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666, Japan
2Division of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0047, Japan
3Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, 00014 Helsinki, Finland

Received 13 February 2014; Accepted 1 June 2014; Published 30 June 2014

Academic Editor: De-Li Shi

Copyright © 2014 Toshiyuki Yoshida et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Nectins constitute a family of four cell adhesion molecules which are localized on cell membrane. Mutations in NECTIN-1 gene cause the human ectodermal dysplasia syndrome (CLPED1) manifesting severe defects in skin and its appendages. However, nectin-1 null mutant mice have only a mild defect in epidermal stratification suggesting compensation by other nectins. We have analysed the epidermal and hair phenotypes of nectin-1; nectin-3 compound mutants. Epidermis was fragile and displayed severe defects in stratification, hair follicles were hypoplastic, and hair shaft structure was abnormal. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed severe defects in cell-cell junctions including adherens and tight junctions as well as desmosomes. It is therefore likely that the phenotypes were caused by impaired cell adhesion. The expression patterns of nectin-1 and nectin-3 together with the phenotypes in compound mutants indicated that heterophilic interactions between the two nectins are required for proper formation of epidermis and hair in mice. The nectin-1; nectin-3 compound mutant mice partially reproduced the phenotype of human CLPED1 patients.