Medical Thoracoscopy Performed Using a Flexible Bronchoscope Inserted through a Chest Tube under Local Anesthesia
(a) Thoracoscopy using a 32 Fr chest tube and a flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope. The bronchoscope does not bend because of chest tube work as a hard sheath just like having a solid body while it still has a flexible terminal section. (b), (c) chest tube insertion is identical to the insertion of a chest drainage, (d) flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope was inserted into the pleural space thorough the chest tube. (e) visualization of the pleura and diaphragm of a patient with malignant pleural mesothelioma by using this method, (f) a forceps biopsy of the pleura is both effective and easy to perform.
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