Table of Contents
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy
Volume 2012, Article ID 498617, 5 pages
Review Article

Fully Covered Self-Expandable Metal Stents for Treatment of Both Benign and Malignant Biliary Disorders

Department of Gastroenterology, Pforzheim Hospital, 75175 Pforzheim, Germany

Received 27 February 2012; Revised 22 April 2012; Accepted 22 April 2012

Academic Editor: Jesús García-Cano

Copyright © 2012 Ahmed Abdel Samie and Lorenz Theilmann. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Transpapillary stents are increasingly being used for biliary strictures, whether benign or malignant. However, there are different stent types and available data is controversial. Recently, completely covered self-expandable metal stents (CSEMSs) have been proposed as an alternative therapeutic option in different biliary indications, including strictures of the distal bile duct, anastomotic stenosis after orthotopic liver transplantation, bile duct leaks, periampullary perforation following endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES), and postsphincterotomy bleeding. Despite the higher costs of these devices, fully covered self-expanding metal stents seem to be a suitable therapeutic option to relief biliary obstruction due to bile duct stenosis, regardless of the underlying cause.