Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy / 2014 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Factors Significantly Contributing to a Failed Conventional Endoscopic Stone Clearance in Patients with “Difficult” Choledecholithiasis: A Single-Center Experience

Table 1

Selected criteria potentially contributing to the difficulty of endoscopic SE.

Anatomic variations/alterationsStone factorsDuct factorsPatients factors

Periampullary diverticulaa15 mm in diameterAcute distal CBD angulationbAge 85 years
Postgastrectomy Billroth type II or Roux-en-Y reconstruction4 in number (multiple stones)
Presence of T-tube in situ + proximal lithiasis Impacted stones
Iatrogenic injury to the extrahepatic biliary tree + lithiasis Intrahepatic or cystic duct stones

Defined endoscopically as a depressed lesion of 5 mm or more with intact mucosa and with the major papilla either within it or close by [17].
bDefined as the sharpest angle along the CBD from 1 cm below the bifurcation to 1 cm above the papilla [15].