Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy / 2014 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Factors Significantly Contributing to a Failed Conventional Endoscopic Stone Clearance in Patients with “Difficult” Choledecholithiasis: A Single-Center Experience

Table 2

Clinical characteristics, preprocedural criteria, and periprocedural factors that contributed to the difficulty of endoscopic SE of patients with (a) difficult () and (b) failed () endoscopic BDS clearance.

Clinical characteristics Failed (%)Difficult, (%)

Median age in years 78,377,1
Gender, (%)
 Men97 (47.3)100 (45.25)
 Women108 (52.7)121 (54.75)
Clinical picture, (%)
 Jaundice/pain52 (25.4)42 (19)
 Abnormal blood liver test49 (23.9)51 (23.1)
 Acute cholangitis12 (5.8)24 (10.6)
 Acute pancreatitis9 (4.4)11 (64.7)
 Shock3 (1.5)1 (0.45)
Preprocedural criteria and periprocedural factors
 Age 85 38 (38)62 (62)
 Periampullary diverticula, (%)84 (56.4)65 (43.6)
 Multiple stones 4136 (44.9)167 (55,1)
 Diameter of CBD stone(s) 15 mm92 (42)127 (58)
 Presence of T-tube in situ + proximal lithiasis25 (56.8)19 (43.2)
 Extrahepatic biliary tree iatrogenic injury + lithiasis11 (57.9)8 (42.1)
 Intrahepatic stone(s)8 (38.1)13 (61.9)
 Previous gastrojejunostomy6 (35.3)11 (64.7)
 Acute distal CBD angulation7 (46.7)8 (53.3)
 Impacted stone(s)45 (44.6)56 (55.4)