Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy / 2016 / Article / Tab 1

Clinical Study

Therapeutic Endoscopy Can Be Performed Safely in an Ambulatory Surgical Center: A Multicenter, Prospective Study

Table 1

Demographic and risk data for inpatient versus ASC ERCP, EUS, and the total population.

ERCPEUSTotal
INASCALL (95% CI)INASCAll (95% CI)INASCALL (95% CI)

Total cases761602362211713998277375
Mean age (years)61.860.2620.5464.267.663.50.6262.763.863.50.85
Sex
 Male31 (41%)46 (29%)77 (33%)0.1718 (82%)56 (48%)74 (53%)0.1349 (50%)102 (37%)151 (40%)0.1
 Female45 (59%)114 (71%)159 (67%)4 (18%)61 (52%)65 (47%)49 (50%)175 (63%)224 (60%)
Comorbid conditions
 Cardiovascular disease35 (46%)55 (34%)90 (38%)0.124 (18%)57 (49%)61 (44%)0.2239 (40%)112 (40%)151 (40%)0.27
 Pulmonary disease17 (22%)18 (11%)35 (15%)0.042 (9%)17 (15%)19 (14%)0.5319 (19%)35 (13%)54 (14%)0.97
 ESRD on dialysis12 (16%)27 (17%)39 (17%)0.701 (5%)31 (27%)32 (23%)0.2816 (16%)62 (22%)78 (21%)0.03
 Cirrhosis5 (7%)7 (4%)12 (5%)0.5305 (4%)5 (4%)0.995 (5%)13 (5%)18 (5%)0.98
Medications
 Anticoagulation3 (4%)6 (4%)9 (4%)1.001 (5%)4 (3%)5 (4%)0.284 (4%)10 (4%)14 (4%)0.55
 Antiplatelet agent16 (21%)23 (14%)39 (17%)0.251 (5%)25 (2%)26 (19%)0.4317 (17%)48 (17%)65 (17%)0.07
Endoscopic risk factors
 High risk features17 (22%)69 (43%)86 (36%)0.0906 (5%)6 (4%)0.9917 (17%)75 (27%)92 (25%)0.1
  History of SOD4 (5%)19 (12%)23 (10%)0.0906 (5%)6 (4%)1.004 (4%)25 (7%)29 (6%)0.72
  History of post-ERCP pancreatitis0001.000001.000001.00
  Pancreatic sphincterotomy7 (9%)37 (23%)44 (19%)0.03NA1.007 (7%)37 (13%)44 (12%)0.01
  Precut sphincterotomy1 (1%)1 (1%)2 (1%)0.62NA1.001 (1%)1 (1%)2 (1%)1.00
  >8 cannulation attempts0001.00NA1.000001.00
  Pneumatic dilation of an intact biliary sphincter5 (7%)9 (6%)14 (6%)0.84NA1.005 (5%)9 (3%)14 (4%)1.00
  Ampullectomy03 (2%)3 (1%)0.95NA1.0003 (1.1%)3 (0.8%)1.00
 Moderate risk features19 (25%)68 (43%)87 (37%)0.1007 (6%)7 (5%)0.9819 (19%)75 (27%)94 (25%)0.02
  Age < 50 and female9 (12%)26 (16%)35 (15%)0.2903 (3%)3 (2%)0.999 (9%)29 (11%)38 (10%)0.09
  History of recurrent pancreatitis6 (8%)7 (4%)13 (6%)0.3804 (3%)4 (3%)0.996 (6%)11 (4%)17 (5%)0.93
  >3 injections to PD, 1 to tail1 (1%)11 (7%)12 (5%)1.00NA1.001 (1%)11 (4%)12 (3%)1.00
  Excessive injection PD contrast, leading to acini0001.00NA1.000001.00
  Acquisition of cytology from PD using brush3 (4%)5 (3%)8 (3%)0.30NA1.003 (3%)5 (2%)8 (2%)0.30
Anesthesia risk
 Mean Mallampati score1.71.41.50.091.61.51.50.931.71.51.50.02
 Mean ASA score2.82.32.50.122.82.62.60.382.82.42.50.24
  12 (3%)17 (11%)19 (8%)01 (1%)1 (1%)2 (2%)18 (7%)20 (5%)
  217 (22%)74 (46%)91 (39%)4 (18%)45 (39%)49 (35%)21 (21%)119 (43%)140 (37%)
  352 (68%)69 (43%)121 (51%)18 (82%)71 (61%)89 (64%)70 (71%)140 (51%)210 (56%)
  45 (7%)05 (2%)0005 (5%)05 (1%)

ERCP: endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; EUS: endoscopic ultrasound; IN: inpatients; ASC: ambulatory surgical center patients; ALL: inpatients + ASC patients; CI: confidence interval; ESRD: end-stage renal disease; SOD: sphincter of Oddi dysfunction; PD: pancreatic duct; ASA: American society of anesthesia class.
Note that is significant.

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