About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Economics Research International
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 474230, 8 pages
Research Article

Electronic Waste: A Growing Concern in Today's Environment

1Department of Management Systems, College of Business, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA
2MIS Department, College of Business, Southern University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70126, USA
3Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Russ College of Engineering and Technology, Ohio University OH 45701, Athens, USA

Received 3 December 2010; Revised 18 March 2011; Accepted 5 April 2011

Academic Editor: Yew-Kwang Ng

Copyright © 2011 M. Khurrum S. Bhutta et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. M. Hilty, “Electronic waste—an emerging risk?” Environmental Impact Assessment Review, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 431–435, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. L. M. Hilty, C. Som, and A. Köhler, “Assessing the human, social, and environmental risks of pervasive computing,” Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 853–874, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. UNEP, Recycling—From e-Waste to Resources: Sustainable Innovation and Technology Transfer Industrial Sector Studies, United Nations Environment Programme, 2009.
  4. Consumer Electronics Association, “US consumer electronics sales and forecast, 2003–2008,” 2008. View at Google Scholar
  5. Euromonitor from Trade Sources/national statistics, Euromonitor International, 2010.
  6. J. Watts, “China orders PC makers to install blocking software,” 2009, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/jun/08/web-blocking-software-china. View at Google Scholar
  7. W. He, G. Li, X. Ma et al., “WEEE recovery strategies and the WEEE treatment status in China,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 136, no. 3, pp. 502–512, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  8. UNEP, E-waste: The Hidden Side of IT Equipment's Manufacturing and Use: Early Warnings on Emerging Environmental Threats no. 5, United Nations Environment Programme, 2005.
  9. D. Woodell, “GeoPedia: e-waste,” National Geographic, 2008, http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/geopedia/E-Waste. View at Google Scholar
  10. D. Woodell, “High-tech trash,” National Geographic, pp. 72–73, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  11. W. J. Denga, P. K. K. Louieb, W. K. Liuc, X. H. Bid, J. M. Fud, and M. H. Wonga, “Atmospheric levels and cytotoxicity of PAHs and heavy metals in TSP and PM2.5 at an electronic waste recycling site in southeast China,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 40, no. 36, pp. 6945–6955, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. M. Macauley, K. Palmer, and J. S. Shih, “Dealing with electronic waste: modeling the costs and environmental benefits of computer monitor disposal,” Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 13–22, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  13. J. Puckett, L. Byster, S. Westervelt et al., Exporting Harm: The High-Tech Trashing of Asia, The Basel Action Network (BAN) and Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition (SVTC), 2002, http://www.ban.org/E-waste/technotrashfinalcomp.pdf.
  14. D. Sinha-Khetriwal, The management of electronic waste: a comparative study on India and Switzerland, M.S. thesis, University of St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland, 2002.
  15. R. Widmer, H. Oswald-Krapf, D. Sinha-Khetriwal, M. Schnellmann, and H. Böni, “Global perspectives on e-waste,” Environmental Impact Assessment Review, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 436–458, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. D. Sinha-Khetriwal, P. Kraeuchi, and R. Widmer, “Producer responsibility for e-waste management: key issues for consideration—learning from the Swiss experience,” Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 153–165, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  17. CBC News, “How much e-waste do you dump? Cheryne’s Diary,” 2007, http://cheryne.blog.ca/2008/05/21/e-waste-4200920/.
  18. Science Daily, “Recycling of e-waste in China may expose mothers, infants to high dioxin levels, science news,” 2007, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/10/071022094520.htm. View at Google Scholar
  19. R. Wanjiku, “HP and partners tackle Africa e-waste problem,” Computerworld Kenya, 2009, http://www.computerworld.co.ke/articles/2009/02/20/hp-and-partners-tackle-africa-e-waste-problem.
  20. K. Herten, Recycling Magazine Benelux no. 2, 2008.
  21. US EPA, Fact Sheet: Management of Electronic Waste in the US, 2008.
  22. J. Kuper and M. Hojsik, Poisoning the Poor Electronic Waste in Gahana, Greenpeace International, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2008.
  23. C. Davis, “Why is electronic waste a problem? Earthtrends,” 2006, http://earthtrends.wri.org/updates/node/130.
  24. O. Osibanjo, “Electronic waste: a major challenge to sustainable development in Africa,” in Proceedings of the R’09 World Congress, Davos, Switzerland, September 2009.
  25. A. Sepúlveda, M. Schluep, F. G. Renaud et al., “A review of the environmental fate and effects of hazardous substances released from electrical and electronic equipments during recycling: examples from China and India,” Environmental Impact Assessment Review, vol. 30, pp. 28–41, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  26. EU, “Directive 2002/95/EC of the European parliament and of the council of 27 January 2003 on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment,” Official Journal of the European Union, pp. 19–23, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  27. J. Huisman, F. Magalini, R. Kuehr et al., “2008 Review of Directive 2002/96 on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE),” Final Report 07010401/2006/442493/ETU/G4, United Nations University, Bonn, Germany, AEA Technology, Didcot UK, Gaiker, Bilbao, Spain, Regional Environmental Centre for Central and Eastern Europe, Szentendre, Hungary, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  28. S. Schwarzer, A. De Bono, G. Giuliani, S. Kluser, and P. Peduzzi, “E-waste, the hidden side of IT equipment's manufacturing and use,” UNEP DEWA/GRID-Europe Environment Alert Bulletin 5, 2005, http://www.grid.unep.ch/product/publication/download/ew_ewaste.en.pdf. View at Google Scholar
  29. M. Cobbing, Toxic Tech: Not in Our Backyard: Uncovering the Hidden Flows of e-Waste, Greenpeace International, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2008.
  30. “Administrative measures on the control of pollution caused by electronic information products,” in Proceedings of the 4th Plenary Session of the 10th National People's Congress (NPC '06), Beijing, China, 2006.
  31. A. Terazono, S. Murakami, N. Abe, B. Inanc, Y. Moriguchi, and S. I. Sakai, “Current status and research on e-waste issues in Asia,” Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, National Environmental Management: Waste Bill, Republic of South Africa, 2007.
  33. OECD, Extended Producer Responsibility: A Guidance Manual for Governments, OECD, Paris, France, 2001.
  34. SVTC, “Poison PCs and Toxic TV’s,” 2011, http://svtc.org/wp-content/uploads/ppc-ttv1.pdf. View at Google Scholar
  35. EPA, Electronics Waste Management in the United States Approach 1 Final, Office of Solid Waste US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA, 2008, http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/conserve/materials/ecycling/docs/app-1.pdf.
  36. US EPA, Statistics in the Management of Used and End of Life Electronics, 2008.
  37. J. Gregory, F. Magalini, R. Kuehr, and J. Huisman, “E-waste take-back system design and policy approaches,” Solving the e-Waste Problem (StEP), White Paper, 2009.
  38. W. R. Kelce, C. R. Stone, S. C. Laws, L. Earlgray, J. A. Kemppainen, and E. M. Wilson, “Ego boost for toxicology elsewhere—persistent DDT metabolite P,P′-DDE is potent androgen receptor antagonist—comment,” Human & Experimental Toxicology, vol. 14, p. 850, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  39. G. Winneke, J. Walkowiak, and H. Lilienthal, “PCB-induced neurodevelopmental toxicity in human infants and its potential mediation by endocrine dysfunction,” Toxicology, vol. 181-182, pp. 161–165, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. Bi Xinhui, G. O. Thomas, K. C. Jones et al., “Exposure of electronics dismantling workers to polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides in south China,” Environment Science and Technology, vol. 41, no. 16, pp. 5647–5653, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  41. I. Kalantzi Olga , F. L. Martin, G. O. Thomas et al., “Different levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and chlorinated compounds in breast milk from two U.K. regions,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 112, no. 10, pp. 1085–1091, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. J. Kristina, K. Thuresson, L. Rylander, A. Sjodin, L. Hagmar, and A. Bergman, “Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and tetrabromobisphenol A among computer technicians,” Chemosphere, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 709–716, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar