Table 6: Primary studies on depression and mental illness.

Author Data Method used Key results

Depression and age

Mirowski and Ross
Aging, status, and the sense of control (ASOC) for 1995 and 1998—EUA OLS Depression associated with financial difficulties decreases with older age

Mirowsky [15] Survey of Work, Family and Well-being (WFW)−1990, Illinois Survey of Well-being (ISW)—1985, National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH)-1988/89, EUA OLS Depression affects men and women at different ages, especially at older ages.

Depression and education

Chevalier and
Feinstein [16]
National Child Development Study (NCDS), United Kingdom Propensity score matching The depression risk decreases with education, especially for women.

Ross and
Mirowski [17]
Survey of Aging, Status, and the Sense of Control (ASOC)—1995, USA OLS The depression risk in women decrease as the level of education increases.

Santos and
Kassouf [18]
National Survey by Household Sampling (NSHS)—2003, Brazil Probit Education reduces the depression risk, especially in women

Depression and marriage

Rosenfield [19] Social Psychiatric Research Unit at Columbia University—1965 Descriptive data analysis The depression risk is higher for women when the division of labor is traditional, that is, the husband works outside the home and the woman only in the home. When both work, however, the depression risk is higher for men

Mirowsky [20] Telephone Survey of a National Probability Sample of US Household—1978, USA OLS Inequity in marital power produces depression. Each spouse is least depressed if marital power is shared to some extent. There is a U-shaped relationship between depression
and marital power.

Wu and Hart [21] National Population Health Survey (NPHS) , Canada Panel data model Divorce/separation increases the depression risk.

Brown [22]National Survey of Family and Households (NSFH)—1987/1988, EUAOLS Depression risk is higher for people that live together but are not married (in stable union) than for legally married individuals.

Dehle and
Weiss [23]
Primary data with interviews in 1998 Hierarchical regression model Lack of communication and conflict at beginning of marriage increases depression risk

Depression and other diseases

Barkow et al. [24]The WHO Collaborative Study on “Psychological Problems in General Health Care”—1995Logit Chronic physical diseases increase risk of depression

Moussavi et al. [25] World Health Survey (WHS)—2006, various countries OLS Depression associated with chronic physical illnesses worsens health status more than depression alone.

Depression and gender

Aneshensel et al. [26] Primary data done in Los Angeles, USA, after interviews in 1979 GLS Family and work roles tend to be associated with reduced depression risk, with greater effects on men

Newmann [27] Psychiatric Evaluation Research Instrument—1978— Winsconsin, USA OLS Women are more likely than men to suffer hardships associated with the absence of a spouse, social isolation, financial difficulties, and chronic health problems. However, none of these hardships has a significantly greater impact on depressive syndrome levels for women than for men

Fryers et al. [28]General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI)—various countries Meta-analysis Women generally present more depressive symptoms than men

Depression and race

Mezuk et al. [29] The Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study, 1993–2004—Maryland, USA Multiple logistic regression Depression risk is lower among African-Americans

Riolo et al. [30]The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988–1994—USA Logit Prevalence of depression is higher for whites than for African-Americans and Mexican-Americans

Jackson et al. [31] Americans’ Changing Lives study, 1986 and 1989—USA Logit Between individuals that have unhealthy behaviors, whites are more likely to have depression

Depression and urban/rural areas

Paykel et al. [32]the Household Survey of the National Morbidity Survey of Great Britain—1993 Multivariate Logit Mental illnesses are more common among people living in urban areas

Wang [33]Canadian National Population Health Survey (NPHS), 1998–1999, Canada Odds Ratio/Correlation analysis Prevalence rate of depression is higher in urban areas

Depression and Climate/season

Harmatz et al. [34]Fallon Healthcare System—1999—USA Multivariate Analysis Depression risk is higher in winter and for women

Oyane et al. [35]The Hordaland Health Study (HUSK)−1997—99—NorwayLogit In colder periods, prevalence rate of depression is higher

Magnusson [36] Diverse studies for various countries Literature overview Prevalence of depression has peaks in winter