Table 1: Classification of various CE measures.


Reducing solar irradiation
(lower ; SRM)
Space measuresPlacing mirrors or dust in space
Stratospheric measuresInjection of sulfur or nanoparticles
Radiation management (RM)Increasing albedo (higher A; SRM)Cloud measuresInjection of salt aerosols into marine stratus clouds
Surface measuresModification of crop, forest, desert, or urban albedo
Increasing radiation
(lower α; TRM)
Cloud measuresInjection of  bismuth(III) iodide into cirrus clouds

Biological-based measuresBiochar production, afforestation, ocean iron fertilization
Carbon dioxide removal (CDR)Reducing -absorbing atmospheric carbon (lower α)Chemical-based measuresSpreading pulverized lime or calcium hydroxide in the ocean, air capture
Physical-based measuresEnhancing downwelling currents

Source: [16, 17, 22].