Table 1: Definitions of dependent and independent variables.
 Variable Definition Dependent variables Outpatient services Dummy variable = 1 if respondent received outpatient care, otherwise = 0 Number of outpatient services The number of times outpatient care received per respondent Inpatient services Dummy variable = 1 if respondent received inpatient care, otherwise = 0 Number of inpatient services The number of times inpatient care received per respondent Independent variables Additive Factor Drinking every week and deep drunk Dummy variable = 1 if respondent drinks every week and gets drunk, otherwise = 0 Former smoker Dummy variable = 1 if respondent smokes at least 20 cigarettes every day, otherwise = 0 Chewing betel nut Dummy variable = 1 if respondent chews betel nut at least one or two days per week, otherwise = 0 No addictive factors Dummy variable = 1 if respondent is without addictive factors, otherwise = 0 Socio-demographic variables Male Dummy variable = 1 if respondent is male, otherwise = 0 Age (year) 12–20 (Respondent’s age in this range is the reference category) 21–35 Dummy variable = 1 if respondent’s age is in this range, otherwise = 0 36–50 Dummy variable = 1 if respondent’s age is in this range, otherwise = 0 51–64 Dummy variable = 1 if respondent’s age is in this range, otherwise = 0 Married Dummy variable = 1 if respondent has married, otherwise = 0 Education level Primary school and below Dummy variable = 1 if respondent finished primary school and below, otherwise = 0 Junior high Dummy variable = 1 if respondent finished junior high school, otherwise = 0 Senior high Dummy variable = 1 if respondent finished senior high school, otherwise = 0 College and above (College and above is the reference category) Individual monthly income NT \$ 0 Dummy variable = 1 if individual’s monthly income is in this range, otherwise = 0 NT \$ 1–19,999 Dummy variable = 1 if individual’s monthly income is in this range, otherwise = 0 NT \$ 20,000–39,999 Dummy variable = 1 if individual’s monthly income is in this range, otherwise = 0 NT \$ 40,000–59,999 Dummy variable = 1 if individual’s monthly income is in this range, otherwise = 0 NT \$ ≥ 60,000 (Individual’s monthly income in this range is the reference category) Health status BMI The number of respondent’s body mass index (BMI) Heart disease Dummy variable = 1 if respondent has heart disease, otherwise = 0 Hypertension Dummy variable = 1 if respondent has hypertension, otherwise = 0 Diabetes Dummy variable = 1 if respondent has diabetes, otherwise = 0 Cholesterol Dummy variable = 1 if respondent has cholesterol, otherwise = 0 Stroke Dummy variable = 1 if respondent has stroke, otherwise = 0 Geographical variables Residential locations Northern Dummy variable = 1 if the household is located in Taipei Hsien, Keelung City, Ilan Hsien, Taoyuan Hsien, Hsinchu Hsien, Miaoli Hsien, and Taipei Municipality (north is the reference category) Central Dummy variable = 1 if the household is located in Taichung Hsien, Changhua Hsien, Nantou Hsien, Yunlin Hsien, and Taichung City Southern Dummy variable = 1 if the household is located in Chiayi Hsien, Tainan Hsien, Kaohsiung Hsien, Pingtung Hsien, Kaohsiung Municipality, Chiayi City, and Tainan City Eastern Dummy variable = 1 if the household is located in Taitung Hsien, Hualien Hsien, Penghu Hsien