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Enzyme Research
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 174354, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2010/174354
Review Article

Enzymatic Strategies to Detoxify Gluten: Implications for Celiac Disease

1Department of Chemistry, University of Salerno, 84084 Salerno, Italy
2European Laboratory for the Investigation of Food-Induced Diseases, University Federico II, 80131 Naples, Italy

Received 4 July 2010; Accepted 14 September 2010

Academic Editor: Raffaele Porta

Copyright © 2010 Ivana Caputo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Celiac disease is a permanent intolerance to the gliadin fraction of wheat gluten and to similar barley and rye proteins that occurs in genetically susceptible subjects. After ingestion, degraded gluten proteins reach the small intestine and trigger an inappropriate T cell-mediated immune response, which can result in intestinal mucosal inflammation and extraintestinal manifestations. To date, no pharmacological treatment is available to gluten-intolerant patients, and a strict, life-long gluten-free diet is the only safe and efficient treatment available. Inevitably, this may produce considerable psychological, emotional, and economic stress. Therefore, the scientific community is very interested in establishing alternative or adjunctive treatments. Attractive and novel forms of therapy include strategies to eliminate detrimental gluten peptides from the celiac diet so that the immunogenic effect of the gluten epitopes can be neutralized, as well as strategies to block the gluten-induced inflammatory response. In the present paper, we review recent developments in the use of enzymes as additives or as processing aids in the food biotechnology industry to detoxify gluten.