Table of Contents Author Guidelines
Enzyme Research
Volume 2012, Article ID 921362, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/921362
Review Article

Pullulanase: Role in Starch Hydrolysis and Potential Industrial Applications

1Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, 53300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
3Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
4Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Received 26 March 2012; Revised 12 June 2012; Accepted 12 June 2012

Academic Editor: Joaquim Cabral

Copyright © 2012 Siew Ling Hii et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Citations to this Article [105 citations]

The following is the list of published articles that have cited the current article.

  • Xuguo Duan, Jian Chen, and Jing Wu, “Optimization of pullulanase production in Escherichia coli by regulation of process conditions and supplement with natural osmolytes,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 146, pp. 379–385, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yao Nie, Wei Yan, Yan Xu, Wen Bo Chen, Xiao Qing Mu, Xinye Wang, and Rong Xiao, “High-Level Expression of Bacillus naganoensis Pullulanase from Recombinant Escherichia coli with Auto-Induction: Effect of lac Operator,” Plos One, vol. 8, no. 10, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Taha Rashid, Alan Ebringer, and Clyde Wilson, “The Role of Klebsiella in Crohn’s Disease with a Potential for the Use of Antimicrobial Measures,” International Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 2013, pp. 1–8, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ping Wang, Xun Sun, Yinpeng Xie, Mingjun Li, Wei Chen, Sheng Zhang, Dong Liang, and Fengwang Ma, “ Melatonin regulates proteomic changes during leaf senescence in Malus hupehensis ,” Journal of Pineal Research, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Chun Zou, Xuguo Duan, and Jing Wu, “Enhanced extracellular production of recombinant Bacillus deramificans pullulanase in Escherichia coli through induction mode optimization and a glycine feeding strategy,” Bioresource Technology, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Noha M. Mesbah, and Juergen Wiegel, “Halophilic alkali- and thermostable amylase from a novel polyextremophilic Amphibacillus sp. NM-Ra2,” International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Fabiana S. Paula, Jorge L. M. Rodrigues, Jizhong Zhou, Liyou Wu, Rebecca C. Mueller, Babur S. Mirza, Brendan J. M. Bohannan, Klaus Nüsslein, Ye Deng, James M. Tiedje, and Vivian H. Pellizari, “Land use change alters functional gene diversity, composition and abundance in Amazon forest soil microbial communities,” Molecular Ecology, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Teresa Paramo, Alexandra East, Diana Garzon, and Martin B. Ulmschneider, “Efficient Characterization of Protein Cavities within Molecular Simulation Trajectories: trj_cavity,” Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 2151–2164, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jianyong Xu, Feifei Ren, Chun-Hsiang Huang, Yingying Zheng, Jie Zhen, Hong Sun, Tzu-Ping Ko, Miao He, Chun-Chi Chen, Hsiu-Chien Chan, Rey-Ting Guo, Hui Song, and Yanhe Ma, “ Functional and structural studies of pullulanase from Anoxybacillus sp. LM18-11 ,” Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sarah Rajaei, Reza Heidari, Hossein Shahbani Zahiri, Sara Sharifzadeh, Ibrahim Torktaz, and Kambiz Akbari Noghabi, “A novel cold- adapted pullulanase from Exiguobacterium sp SH3: Production optimization, purification, and characterization,” Starch-Starke, vol. 66, no. 3-4, pp. 225–234, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Nasir Ahmad, Naeem Rashid, Muhammad Saleem Haider, Mehwish Akram, and Muhammad Akhtar, “Novel Maltotriose-Hydrolyzing Thermoacidophilic Type III Pullulan Hydrolase from Thermococcus kodakarensis,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 1108–1115, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Y. Qiao, Q. Peng, J. Yan, H. Wang, H. Ding, and B. Shi, “ Gene cloning and enzymatic characterization of alkali-tolerant type I pullulanase from Exiguobacterium acetylicum ,” Letters in Applied Microbiology, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Pedro Fernandes, “Marine enzymes and food industry: insight on existing and potential interactions,” Frontiers in Marine Science, vol. 1, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ralph E.F. Lindeboom, Lei Ding, Jan Weijma, Caroline M. Plugge, and Jules B. van Lier, “Starch hydrolysis in autogenerative high pressure digestion: Gelatinisation and saccharification as rate limiting steps,” Biomass and Bioenergy, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Milena Lambri, Roberta Dordoni, Arianna Roda, Dante Marco De Faveri, Milena Lambri, Roberta Dordoni, Arianna Roda, and Dante Marco De Faveri, “Process Development for Maltodextrins and Glucose Syrup from Cassava,” Ibic2014: 4Th International Conference On Industrial Biotechnology, vol. 38, pp. 469–474, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Shu-fang Li, Jian-yong Xu, Yun-juan Bao, Hong-chen Zheng, and Hui Song, “Structure and sequence analysis-based engineering of pullulanase from Anoxybacillus sp. LM18-11 for improved thermostability,” Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 210, pp. 8–14, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Fatima Zia, Khalid Mahmood Zia, Mohammad Zuber, Shagufta Kamal, and Nosheen Aslam, “Starch based polyurethanes: A critical review updating recent literature,” Carbohydrate Polymers, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Xuguo Duan, Chun Zou, and Jing Wu, “Triton X-100 enhances the solubility and secretion ratio of aggregation-prone pullulanase produced in Escherichia coli,” Bioresource Technology, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Skander Elleuche, Farah M. Qoura, Ute Lorenz, Torben Rehn, Thomas Brück, and Garabed Antranikian, “Cloning, expression and characterization of the recombinant cold-active type-I pullulanase from Shewanella arctica,” Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Xuguo Duan, and Jing Wu, “Enhancing the Secretion Efficiency and Thermostability of a Bacillus deramificans Pullulanase Mutant (D437H/D503Y) by N-Terminal Domain Truncation,” Applied And Environmental Microbiology, vol. 81, no. 6, pp. 1926–1931, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • S. Ece, S. Evran, J.-O. Janda, R. Merkl, and R. Sterner, “Improving thermal and detergent stability of Bacillus stearothermophilus neopullulanase by rational enzyme design,” Protein Engineering Design and Selection, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Marco Ulbrich, Ilka Wiesner, and Eckhard Flöter, “Molecular characterization of acid-thinned wheat, potato and pea starches and correlation to gel properties,” Starch - Stärke, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sarah Rajaei, Kambiz Akbari Noghabi, Majid Sadeghizadeh, and Hossein Shahbani Zahiri, “Characterization of a pH and detergent-tolerant, cold-adapted type I pullulanase from Exiguobacterium sp SH3,” Extremophiles, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1145–1155, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ahmad Homaei, Mehri Ghanbarzadeh, and Ferial Monsef, “Biochemical features and kinetic properties of α-amylases from marine organisms,” International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Young-Seok Lee, So-Hyeon Seo, Sang-Hong Yoon, Su-Yeon Kim, Bum-Soo Hahn, Joon-Soo Sim, Bon-Sung Koo, and Chang-Muk Lee, “Identification of a novel alkaline amylopullulanase from a gut metagenome of Hermetia illucens,” International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Muthusamy Chandrasekaran, Soorej Basheer, Sreeja Chellappan, Jissa Krishna, and P Beena, “Enzymes in Food and Beverage Production: An Overview,” Enzymes in Food and Beverage Processing, pp. 117–137, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Xiao Hua, and Ruijin Yang, “Enzymes in Starch Processing,” Enzymes in Food and Beverage Processing, pp. 139–169, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Marie S. Møller, Michael S. Windahl, Lyann Sim, Marie Bøjstrup, Maher Abou Hachem, Ole Hindsgaul, Monica Palcic, Birte Svensson, and Anette Henriksen, “Oligosaccharide and substrate binding in the starch debranching enzyme barley limit dextrinase,” Journal of Molecular Biology, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Gabriel Zamith Leal Dalmaso, Davis Ferreira, and Alane Beatriz Vermelho, “Marine Extremophiles: A Source of Hydrolases for Biotechnological Applications,” Marine Drugs, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 1925–1965, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Nguyen Tu, Doan Vinh, and Le Thu, “Amylase producing bacillus megaterium T04 isolated in rach lang stream of Vietnam,” Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 12–15, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Soheila Davaeifar, Bagher Yakhchali, Parvin Shariati, and Fatemeh Tabandeh, “Isolation and identification of a new Bacillus cereus strain and characterization of its neopullulanase,” Applied Food Biotechnology, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 39–45, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Dilek Alagöz, Deniz Yildirim, Hatice Korkmaz Güvenmez, Damla Sihay, and S. Seyhan Tükel, “Covalent Immobilization and Characterization of a Novel Pullulanase from Fontibacillus sp. Strain DSHK 107 onto Florisil® and Nano-silica for Pullulan Hydrolysis,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 179, no. 7, pp. 1262–1274, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Chun Zou, Xuguo Duan, and Jing Wu, “Magnesium ions increase the activity of Bacillus deramificans pullulanase expressed by Brevibacillus choshinensis,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 100, no. 16, pp. 7115–7123, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ummirul Mukminin Kahar, Chyan Leong Ng, Kok-Gan Chan, and Kian Mau Goh, “Characterization of a type I pullulanase from Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4 reveals an unusual substrate hydrolysis,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 100, no. 14, pp. 6291–6307, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Marie Sofie Møller, Birte Svensson, and Anette Henriksen, “Structure and function of α-glucan debranching enzymes,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 73, no. 14, pp. 2619–2641, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Linghua Chen, Yining Huang, Dasheng Zhang, Jingui Zheng, Ming Xu, and Zuxin Cheng, “iTraq-based quantitative proteomics analysis of black rice grain development reveals metabolic pathways associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis,” PLoS ONE, vol. 11, no. 7, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Neekun Sharma, Yuuki Koyama, Eun-Sil Park, Osamu Fujita, Akitoyo Hotta, Shigeru Morikawa Morikawa, Akihiko Uda, Kazuhiro Takimoto, and Tian Deyu, “Pullulanase is necessary for the efficient intracellular growth of francisella tularensis,” PLoS ONE, vol. 11, no. 7, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Marilen P. Balolong, Jong Pyo Chae, and Dae-Kyung Kang, “Expression and characterisation of neopullulanase from Lactobacillus mucosae,” Biotechnology Letters, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Volker F. Wendisch, Joao M. P. Jorge, Fernando Perez-Garcia, and Elvira Sgobba, “Updates on industrial production of amino acids using Corynebacterium glutamicum,” World Journal Of Microbiology & Biotechnology, vol. 32, no. 6, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Matthew H. Foley, Darrell W. Cockburn, and Nicole M. Koropatkin, “The Sus operon: a model system for starch uptake by the human gut Bacteroidetes,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 73, no. 14, pp. 2603–2617, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Chun Zou, Xuguo Duan, and Jing Wu, “Efficient extracellular expression of Bacillus deramificans pullulanase in Brevibacillus choshinensis,” Journal Of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 495–504, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Štefan Janeček, “α-Amylases from Archaea: Sequences, Structures and Evolution,” Biotechnology of Extremophiles:, vol. 1, pp. 505–524, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yuxiang Bai, Markus Böger, Rachel Maria van der Kaaij, Albert Jan Jacob Woortman, Tjaard Pijning, Sander Sebastiaan van Leeuwen, Alicia Lammerts van Bueren, and Lubbert Dijkhuizen, “ Lactobacillus reuteri Strains Convert Starch and Maltodextrins into Homoexopolysaccharides Using an Extracellular and Cell-Associated 4,6-α-Glucanotransferase ,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • A'na Chen, Zhonghu Bai, Xiuxia Liu, Jinling Zhan, Song Li, Xiaofeng Dai, Feng Peng, Lu Li, Fen Wang, and Yankun Yang, “Effect of N-terminal truncation of Bacillus acidopullulyticus pullulanase on enzyme properties and functions,” Shengwu Gongcheng Xuebao/Chinese Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 355–364, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Anton Pallin, Peter Agback, Hans Jonsson, and Stefan Roos, “Evaluation of growth, metabolism and production of potentially bioactive components during fermentation of barley with Lactobacillus reuteri,” Food Microbiology, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Pratyoosh Shukla, Santhosh Kumar, Nanthakumar Arumugam, Kugenthiren Permaul, and Suren Singh, “Chapter 5 Thermostable Enzymes and Their Industrial Applications,” Microbial Biotechnology, pp. 115–162, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • A. Surendra Babu, and R. Parimalavalli, “Structural and functional characterization of RS III produced from gelatinized, enzyme-hydrolyzed and retrograded sweet potato starch,” Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Meihui Chang, Jinzhi Lv, Qingbin Li, Ningfeng Wu, Xiaoyu Chu, and Jian Tian, “Improving the thermostability of acidic pullulanase from bacillus naganoensis by rational design,” PLoS ONE, vol. 11, no. 10, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ana Chen, Yang Sun, Wei Zhang, Feng Peng, Chunjun Zhan, Meng Liu, Yankun Yang, and Zhonghu Bai, “Downsizing a pullulanase to a small molecule with improved soluble expression and secretion efficiency in Escherichia coli,” Microbial Cell Factories, vol. 15, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jingjing Liu, Yu Liu, Feng Yan, Zhengqiang Jiang, Shaoqing Yang, and Qiaojuan Yan, “Gene cloning, functional expression and characterisation of a novel type I pullulanase from Paenibacillus barengoltzii and its application in resistant starch production,” Protein Expression and Purification, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Moumita Bishai, Anshu Singh, Sunita Adak, Jyotsana Prakash, Lakshmishri Roy, and Rintu Banerjee, “Enzymatic Peeling of Potato: A Novel Processing Technology,” Potato Research, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Zahid Majeed, Nurlidia Mansor, Zainab Ajab, and Zakaria Man, “Lignin macromolecule's implication in slowing the biodegradability of urea-crosslinked starch films applied as slow-release fertilizer,” Starch - Stärke, pp. 1600362, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jun Zhang, Guobao Jiao, Lipeng Sun, Zhongmin Liu, Liyou Qiu, Tao Li, and Yatong Ding, “Improving the expression of recombinant pullulanase by increasing mRNA stability in Escherichia coli,” Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 29, pp. 63–67, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Issa Sadeghian, Navid Nezafat, Shiva Hemmati, Younes Ghasemi, Seyyed Soheil Rahmatabadi, Manica Negahdaripour, and Nasim Hajighahramani, “In silico investigation of pullulanase enzymes from various bacillus species,” Current Proteomics, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 175–185, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Soh Kheang Loh, Nurul Adela Bukhari, Nasrin Abu Bakar, and Maizan Ismail, “Hydrolysis of residual starch from sago pith residue and its fermentation to bioethanol,” Sains Malaysiana, vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 1269–1278, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Carlos Andres Morales Letona, Cheon-Seok Park, and Young-Rok Kim, “Amylosucrase-mediated β-carotene encapsulation in amylose microparticles,” Biotechnology Progress, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Zhemin Zhou, Jianfeng Wang, and Zhongmei Liu, “Regulation of the catalytic behavior of pullulanases chelated onto nickel (II)-modified magnetic nanoparticles,” Enzyme and Microbial Technology, vol. 101, pp. 9–16, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Shengchen Wang, Qinhong Wang, Yuling Zhou, Zhenghui Lu, Guimin Zhang, and Yanhe Ma, “A new GH13 α-glucosidase from alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus 703 with both exo-α-l, 4-glucosidase and oligo-l, 6-glucosidase activities toward amylopectin,” International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Kenji Abe, Akio Kuroda, and Ryo Takeshita, “Engineering of Escherichia coli to facilitate efficient utilization of isomaltose and panose in industrial glucose feedstock,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 101, no. 5, pp. 2057–2066, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Shaoqing Yang, Jingjing Liu, Qiaojuan Yan, Qingdan Bao, and Zhengqiang Jiang, “Expression and biochemical characterization of a novel type I pullulanase from Bacillus megaterium,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 397–405, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Skander Elleuche, Alina Krull, Ute Lorenz, and Garabed Antranikian, “Parallel N- and C-Terminal Truncations Facilitate Purification and Analysis of a 155-kDa Cold-Adapted Type-I Pullulanase,” Protein Journal, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 56–63, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jianfeng Wang, Zhongmei Liu, and Zhemin Zhou, “Improving Pullulanase Catalysis via Reversible Immobilization on Modified Fe3O4@Polydopamine Nanoparticles,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Suthsiri Precha-Atsawanan, Santhanee Puncha-arnon, Yuree Wandee, Dudsadee Uttapap, Chureerat Puttanlek, and Vilai Rungsardthong, “Physicochemical properties of partially debranched waxy rice starch,” Food Hydrocolloids, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Susana Marques, Antonio D. Moreno, Mercedes Ballesteros, and Francisco Gírio, “Starch Biomass for Biofuels, Biomaterials, and Chemicals,” Biomass and Green Chemistry, pp. 69–94, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Zixing Dong, Xiaoming Hao, Daman S. Pokhrel, Xiaoling Chen, Xiaoguang Liu, Nokuthula P. Mchunu, Kugenthiren Permaul, Suren Singh, Dandan Niu, and Zhengxiang Wang, “ Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of two novel oligo-1,6-glucosidases from Bacillus mycoides and Thermomyces lanuginosus ,” Starch - Stärke, pp. 1700093, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Qing-Yan Wang, Qi-Shi Du, Yan Qin, Jian-Xiu Li, Neng-Zhong Xie, Jian-Zong Meng, and Ri-Bo Huang, “Active hydrogen bond network (AHBN) and applications for improvement of thermal stability and pH-sensitivity of pullulanase from Bacillus naganoensis,” PLoS ONE, vol. 12, no. 1, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • T. Eswara Rao, M. Imchen, and R. Kumavath, “Marine Enzymes: Production and Applications for Human Health,” 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Lingmeng Li, Fengying Dong, Lin Lin, Dannong He, Wei Wei, and Dongzhi Wei, “ N-Terminal Domain Truncation and Domain Insertion-Based Engineering of a Novel Thermostable Type I Pullulanase from Geobacillus thermocatenulatus ,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yi Deng, Yu Zhang, Yue Wang, Yao Nie, and Yan Xu, “Improved inducible expression of Bacillus naganoensis pullulanase from recombinant Bacillus subtilis by enhancer regulation,” Protein Expression and Purification, vol. 148, pp. 9–15, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • R P Dhavale, S B Parit, Subasa C Sahoo, P Kollu, P S Patil, P B Patil, and A D Chougale, “ α -amylase immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles: reusable robust nano-biocatalyst for starch hydrolysis ,” Materials Research Express, vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 075403, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • A Laga, A Syarifuddin, and A Dirpan, “Enzymatic production of maltodextrins derived from sago flour using heat-stable alpha-amylase and pullulanase,” IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, vol. 157, pp. 012028, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Zhan-Hui Lu, Nicholas Belanger, Elizabeth Donner, and Qiang Liu, “Debranching of pea starch using pullulanase and ultrasonication synergistically to enhance slowly digestible and resistant starch,” Food Chemistry, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Kang Zhang, Lingqia Su, and Jing Wu, “Enhanced extracellular pullulanase production in Bacillus subtilis using protease-deficient strains and optimal feeding,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 102, no. 12, pp. 5089–5103, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Noha M. Mesbah, and Juergen Wiegel, “Biochemical characterization of halophilic, alkalithermophilic amylopullulanase PulD7 and truncated amylopullulanases PulD7ΔN and PulD7ΔC,” International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol. 111, pp. 632–638, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Xinlin Hu, Yanhe Ma, Zhenghui Lu, Panpan Shen, Qinhong Wang, Yuling Zhou, and Guimin Zhang, “A pH-stable, detergent and chelator resistant type I pullulanase from Bacillus pseudofirmus 703 with high catalytic efficiency,” International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol. 109, pp. 1302–1310, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Geizecler Tomazetto, Sarah Hahnke, Daniel Wibberg, Alfred Pühler, Michael Klocke, and Andreas Schlüter, “Proteiniphilum saccharofermentans str. M3/6 T isolated from a laboratory biogas reactor is versatile in polysaccharide and oligopeptide utilization as deduced from genome-based metabolic reconstructions,” Biotechnology Reports, pp. e00254, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Abeer A. Abd El Aty, Abeer N. Shehata, and Tharwat I. Shaheen, “Production and Sequential Optimization of Bacillus subtilis MF467279 Pullulanase by Statistical Experimental Designs and Evaluation of its Desizing Efficiency,” Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jingxu Guo, Alun R. Coker, Steve P. Wood, Jonathan B. Cooper, Ronan M. Keegan, Nasir Ahmad, Majida Atta Muhammad, Naeem Rashid, and Muhummad Akhtar, “ Structure and function of the type III pullulan hydrolase from Thermococcus kodakarensis ,” Acta Crystallographica Section D Structural Biology, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 305–314, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Richard J. Giannone, Farris L. Poole, Michael W. W. Adams, Mirko Basen, Robert M. Kelly, Robert L. Hettich, Suresh Poudel, and Intawat Nookaew, “The diversity and specificity of the extracellular proteome in the cellulolytic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor bescii is driven by the nature of the cellulosic growth substrate,” Biotechnology for Biofuels, vol. 11, no. 1, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Tang Chinh, Phung Hieu, Bui Cuong, Nguyen Linh, Nguyen Lan, Nguyen Nguyen, Nguyen Hung, and Le Hien, “Sequencing Batch Reactor and Bacterial Community in Aerobic Granular Sludge for Wastewater Treatment of Noodle-Manufacturing Sector,” Applied Sciences, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 509, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ayalew Ligaba-Osena, Jenna Jones, Emmanuel Donkor, Sanjeev Chandrayan, Farris Pole, Chang-Hao Wu, Claire Vieille, Michael W. W. Adams, and Bertrand B. Hankoua, “Novel Bioengineered Cassava Expressing an Archaeal Starch Degradation System and a Bacterial ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase for Starch Self-Digestibility and Yield Increase,” Frontiers in Plant Science, vol. 9, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Vadim K. Khlestkin, Sergey E. Peltek, and Nikolay A. Kolchanov, “Review of direct chemical and biochemical transformations of starch,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 181, pp. 460–476, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Divya Balakrishnan, Swaroop S. Kumar, and Shiburaj Sugathan, “Amylases for Food Applications—Updated Information,” Green Bio-processes, pp. 199–227, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Lingmeng Li, Fengying Dong, Lin Lin, Dannong He, Jingwen Chen, Wei Wei, and Dongzhi Wei, “ Biochemical Characterization of a Novel Thermostable Type I Pullulanase Produced Recombinantly in Bacillus subtilis ,” Starch - Stärke, pp. 1700179, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jianfeng Wang, Zhongmei Liu, and Zhemin Zhou, “ Cloning and Characterization of a Novel Thermophilic Amylopullulanase with a Type I Pullulanase Structure From Anoxybacillus sp. WB42 ,” Starch - Stärke, pp. 1700265, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Pawinee Panpetch, Robert A. Field, and Tipaporn Limpaseni, “Heterologous co-expression in E. coli of isoamylase genes from cassava Manihot esculenta Crantz ‘KU50’ achieves enzyme-active heteromeric complex formation,” Plant Molecular Biology, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Kit Wayne Chew, Tau Chuan Ling, and Pau Loke Show, “Recent Developments and Applications of Three-Phase Partitioning for the Recovery of Proteins,” Separation & Purification Reviews, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 52–64, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ma. Ángeles Cabrera, and Jenny M. Blamey, “Biotechnological applications of archaeal enzymes from extreme environments,” Biological Research, vol. 51, no. 1, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Lidia Rodrigo-Torres, Alba Yépez, Rosa Aznar, and David R. Arahal, “Genomic Insights Into Five Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum With Biotechnological Potential Isolated From chicha, a Traditional Maize-Based Fermented Beverage From Northwestern Argentina,” Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 10, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Naoki Saka, Dominggus Malle, Hiroyuki Iwamoto, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Kimihiko Mizutani, and Bunzo Mikami, “ Relationship between the induced-fit loop and the activity of Klebsiella pneumoniae pullulanase ,” Acta Crystallographica Section D Structural Biology, vol. 75, no. 9, pp. 792–803, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Bo Pang, Li Zhou, Wenjing Cui, Zhongmei Liu, Shengmin Zhou, Jun Xu, and Zhemin Zhou, “ A Hyperthermostable Type II Pullulanase from a Deep-Sea Microorganism Pyrococcus yayanosii CH1 ,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Marsha R. Cole, Gillian Eggleston, Deriesha K. Gaines, and Matthew Heckemeyer, “Development of an enzyme cocktail to bioconvert untapped starch in sweet sorghum processing by-products: Part I,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 133, pp. 142–150, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ram Sarup Singh, Navpreet Kaur, Dhandeep Singh, and John F. Kennedy, “Investigating aqueous phase separation of pullulan from Aureobasidium pullulans and its characterization,” Carbohydrate Polymers, pp. 115103, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Amjad B. Khalil, Sami Qarawi, and Neelamegam Sivakumar, “Genomic comparison of Anoxybacillus flavithermus AK1, a thermophilic bacteria, with other strains,” Enzyme and Microbial Technology, pp. 109385, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Durgesh Narain Singh, Utkarsh Sood, Amit Kumar Singh, Vipin Gupta, Mallikarjun Shakarad, Charu Dogra Rawat, and Rup Lal, “Genome Sequencing Revealed the Biotechnological Potential of an Obligate Thermophile Geobacillus thermoleovorans Strain RL Isolated from Hot Water Spring,” Indian Journal of Microbiology, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Saeed A. Asiri, Eckhard Flöter, and Marco Ulbrich, “Enzymatic Modification of Granular Potato Starch ‐ Effect of Debranching on Morphological, Molecular, and Functional Properties,” Starch - Stärke, pp. 1900060, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sharrel Rebello, Embalil Mathachan Aneesh, Raveendran Sindhu, Parameswaran Binod, Ashok Pandey, and Edgard Gnansounou, “Enzyme Catalysis: A Workforce to Productivity of Textile Industry,” High Value Fermentation Products, pp. 49–65, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Anne E. Booker, David W. Hoyt, Tea Meulia, Elizabeth Eder, Carrie D. Nicora, Samuel O. Purvine, Rebecca A. Daly, Joseph D. Moore, Kenneth Wunch, Susan M. Pfiffner, Mary S. Lipton, Paula J. Mouser, Kelly C. Wrighton, and Michael J. Wilkins, “ Deep-Subsurface Pressure Stimulates Metabolic Plasticity in Shale-Colonizing Halanaerobium spp. ,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 85, no. 12, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jong-Hyun Jung, Yu-Kyung An, Su-Yeong Son, So-Young Jeong, Dong-Ho Seo, Min-Kyu Kim, and Cheon-Seok Park, “Characterization of a novel extracellular α-amylase from Ruminococcus bromii ATCC 27255 with neopullulanase-like activity,” International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yue Wang, Shuhui Chen, Xianghan Zhao, Yu Zhang, Xinye Wang, Yao Nie, and Yan Xu, “Enhancement of the production of Bacillus naganoensis pullulanase in recombinant Bacillus subtilis by integrative expression,” Protein Expression and Purification, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mounia Akassou, and Denis Groleau, “Advances and challenges in the production of extracellular thermoduric pullulanases by wild-type and recombinant microorganisms: a review,” Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, pp. 1–14, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Nihan Arabacı, and Burhan Arıkan, “ An amylopullulanase (ApuNP1) from Geobacillus thermoleovorans NP1: biochemical characterization and its potential industrial applications ,” Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology, pp. 1–9, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Xinye Wang, Yao Nie, and Yan Xu, “Industrially produced pullulanases with thermostability: discovery, engineering, and heterologous expression,” Bioresource Technology, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Deepak Kumar, and Vijay Singh, “Bioethanol Production From Corn,” Corn, pp. 615–631, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Francisco J. Ríos-Fránquez, Óscar A. Rojas-Rejón, and Carlos Escamilla-Alvarado, “Microbial Enzyme Applications in Bioethanol Producing Biorefineries: Overview,” Bioethanol Production from Food Crops, pp. 249–266, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar