Enzyme Research

Enzyme Research / 2016 / Article / Fig 2

Review Article

Immunomodulatory Effects of Chitotriosidase Enzyme

Figure 2

Schematic representation of a human macrophage showing different stimuli leading to the increased expression and release of chitotriosidase enzyme. An elaborate description of the processes implicated in increased chitotriosidase expression, as well as its immunological effects, is provided in the text. 39-KD chito: chitotriosidase (39 kilodalton protein); 50KD-chito: chitotriosidase (50 kilodalton protein); ERK1/2: extracellular signal regulated kinases 1/2; IL-1β: interleukin-1β; IL-18: interleukin-18; INF-γ: interferon-gamma; Jak: Janus kinase; LPS: lipopolysaccharide; MAPK: mitogen activated protein kinase; MCP-1: monocyte chemotactic protein-1; MDP: muramyl dipeptide; NF-κB: nuclear factor-kB; NK cell: natural killer cell; NLRP3: NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3; NO: nitric oxide; NOD2: nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2; PI3K: PI3 kinase; PTK: protein tyrosine kinase; RANTES: regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted; Stat; signal transducers and activators of transcription; TGF-β: transforming growth factor-beta; Th2 cell: T helper type 2 cell; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

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