Table of Contents
Epidemiology Research International
Volume 2015, Article ID 137246, 12 pages
Research Article

Workplace Violence: A Survey of Nationally Registered Emergency Medical Services Professionals

1Office of Emergency Medical Services, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE (NTI-140), Washington, DC 20590, USA
2Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health, 1900 M Street NW, Suite 710, Washington, DC 20036, USA
3Private Practice, 168 Iris Street, Redwood City, CA 94062, USA

Received 29 August 2014; Revised 19 March 2015; Accepted 29 April 2015

Academic Editor: How-Ran Guo

Copyright © 2015 Anthony Oliver and Roger Levine. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Previous studies on violence against prehospital personnel have mainly reported on “verbal” and “physical” violence. This study explored how provider demographic and work-related characteristics were associated with five different forms of workplace violence (being cursed or threatened; being punched, slapped, or scratched; being spat upon; being stabbed/stabbing attempt; and being shot/shooting attempt). A cohort of nationally registered United States Emergency Medical Services professionals was surveyed to determine the experience of each of these types of patient initiated violence by these providers and their partners. Multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated gender was significantly associated with both being cursed/threatened and being stabbed or experiencing a stabbing attempt (odds ratio (OR) = 0.65, CI = 0.44–0.96; OR = 0.27, CI = 0.09–0.75, resp.). Level of EMT practice was significantly associated with being cursed/threatened, being spat upon, and being punched, slapped, or scratched (OR = 0.17, CI = 0.11–0.27; OR = 0.30, CI = 0.21–0.43; OR = 0.31, CI = 0.22–0.44, resp.). Both community size and experience were significantly associated with all the types of violence investigated. EMS workplace violence research is at its infancy; thus this study adds to a limited but growing body of knowledge.