Table of Contents
Epidemiology Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 906520, 7 pages
Research Article

Risk Factors for Infection with Soil Transmitted Helminths, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia duodenalis in Children Enrolled in Preschools in Kafue District, Zambia

1Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, P.O. Box 32379, Lusaka, Zambia
2Parasitology and Aquatic Diseases, Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, University of Copenhagen, Dyrlaegevej 100, 1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark

Received 16 December 2014; Accepted 17 March 2015

Academic Editor: How-Ran Guo

Copyright © 2015 Joyce Siwila and Annette Olsen. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Intestinal parasitic infections are common among children worldwide. This study was aimed at determining risk factors for infection with soil transmitted helminths, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia duodenalis, among children in preschools. The study was in two parts: a cross-sectional study in which data were collected from 403 children from 10 preschools and a longitudinal study in which 100 children from four preschools from the previous 10 were selected. Prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was 12.0%, while that of hookworm was 8.3%. Overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis was 28.0% and 29.0%, respectively. Low education level of parent/guardian was a significant risk factor for A. lumbricoides (OR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.02–5.41; ), while roofing types other than corrugated iron sheets were found to be protective for G. duodenalis infection in both bivariate and multivariate analyses (multivariate: OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.45–0.99; ). Low socioeconomic level was found to be protective for Cryptosporidium spp. infection in multivariate analysis (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.35–0.99; ). In the longitudinal study, none of the factors were associated with either infection. These findings may have implications for other preschools in other districts in Zambia.