Table of Contents
Epidemiology Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 906520, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/906520
Research Article

Risk Factors for Infection with Soil Transmitted Helminths, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia duodenalis in Children Enrolled in Preschools in Kafue District, Zambia

1Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, P.O. Box 32379, Lusaka, Zambia
2Parasitology and Aquatic Diseases, Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, University of Copenhagen, Dyrlaegevej 100, 1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark

Received 16 December 2014; Accepted 17 March 2015

Academic Editor: How-Ran Guo

Copyright © 2015 Joyce Siwila and Annette Olsen. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Brooker, A. C. A. Clements, and D. A. P. Bundy, “Global epidemiology, ecology and control of soil-transmitted helminth infections,” Advances in Parasitology, vol. 62, pp. 221–261, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. WHO, Fighting Disease, Fostering Development, The World Health Report, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1996.
  3. N. R. de Silva, S. Brooker, P. J. Hotez, A. Montresor, D. Engels, and L. Savioli, “Soil-transmitted helminth infections: updating the global picture,” Trends in Parasitology, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 547–551, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. L. R. S. Moraes and S. Cairncross, “Environmental interventions and the pattern of geohelminth infections in Salvador, Brazil,” Parasitology, vol. 129, no. 2, pp. 223–232, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. D. W. T. Crompton and L. Savioli, Handbook of Helminthiasis for Public Health, Taylor & Francis/CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2007.
  6. P. J. Hotez, D. H. Molyneux, A. Fenwick et al., “Control of neglected tropical diseases,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 357, no. 10, pp. 1018–1027, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. L. Pullan, J. L. Smith, R. Jasrasaria, and S. J. Brooker, “Global numbers of infection and disease burden of soil transmitted helminth infections in 2010,” Parasites and Vectors, vol. 7, no. 1, article 37, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. L. Cordell and D. G. Addiss, “Cryptosporidiosis in child care settings: a review of the literature and recommendations for prevention and control,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 310–317, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. Fayer, “General biology,” in Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis, R. Fayer and L. Xiao, Eds., pp. 1–42, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2nd edition, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  10. A. Bajer, “Between-year variation and spatial dynamics of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. infections in naturally infected rodent populations,” Parasitology, vol. 135, no. 14, pp. 1629–1649, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. J. G. Farthing, “Clinical aspects of human cryptosporidiosis,” Contributions to microbiology, vol. 6, pp. 50–74, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. D. Newman, S.-X. Zu, T. Wuhib, A. A. M. Lima, R. L. Guerrant, and C. L. Sears, “Household epidemiology of Cryptosporidium parvum infection in an urban community in Northeast Brazil,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 120, no. 6, pp. 500–505, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. D. G. C. Pereira, E. R. Atwill, A. P. Barbosa, S. A. E. Silva, and M. T. A. García-Zapata, “Intra-familial and extra-familial risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium parvum infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 787–793, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. D. G. C. Pereira, E. R. Atwill, and A. P. Barbosa, “Prevalence and associated risk factors for Giardia lamblia infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil,” Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 139–145, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. J. G. Farthing, “Giardiasis,” in Protozoal Diseases, H. M. Gills, Ed., pp. 562–584, Arnold Publishers, London, UK, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  16. R. C. A. Thompson, “Giardiasis as a re-emerging infectious disease and its zoonotic potential,” International Journal for Parasitology, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1259–1267, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Nchito, P. Kelly, S. Sianongo et al., “Cryptosporidiosis in urban Zambian children: an analysis of risk factors,” The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 435–437, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Central Statistical Office (CSO), 2010 Census of Population and Housing Report, Central Statistical Office (CSO), Lusaka, Zambia, 2012.
  19. J. Siwila, I. G. K. Phiri, H. L. Enemark, M. Nchito, and A. Olsen, “Intestinal helminths and protozoa in children in pre-schools in Kafue district, Zambia,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 104, no. 2, pp. 122–128, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Siwila, I. G. K. Phiri, H. L. Enemark, M. Nchito, and A. Olsen, “Seasonal prevalence and incidence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis and associated diarrhoea in children attending pre-school in Kafue, Zambia,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 102–108, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. T. B. de Carvalho, L. R. de Carvalho, and L. M. Mascarini, “Occurrence of enteroparasites in day care centers in Botucatu (São Paulo State, Brazil) with emphasis on Cryptosporidium sp., Giardia duodenalis and Enterobius vermicularis,” Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 269–273, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Rinne, E. J. Rodas, R. Galer-Unti, N. Glickman, and L. T. Glickman, “Prevalence and risk factors for protozoan and nematode infections among children in an Ecuadorian highland community,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 99, no. 8, pp. 585–592, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. K. Menzies, A. Rodriguez, M. Chico et al., “Risk factors for soil-transmitted helminth infections during the first 3 years of life in the tropics; findings from a birth cohort,” PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 8, no. 2, Article ID e2718, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. C. T. Leach, F. C. Koo, T. L. Kuhls, S. G. Hilsenbeck, and H. B. Jenson, “Prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum infection in children along the Texas-Mexico border and associated risk factors,” The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 656–661, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. E. Cifuentes, M. Gomez, U. Blumenthal et al., “Risk factors for Giardia intestinalis infection in agricultural villages practicing wastewater irrigation in Mexico,” The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 388–392, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. Esrey, J. Collett, M. O. Miliotis, H. J. Koornhof, and P. Makhale, “The risk of infection from Giardia duodenalis due to drinking water supply, use of water and latrines among pre-school children in rural Lesotho,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 248–253, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  27. G. F. Craun, “Waterborne giardiasis in the United States: a review,” The American Journal of Public Health, vol. 69, no. 8, pp. 817–819, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. Fayer, C. A. Speer, and J. P. Dubey, “The general biology of Cryptosporidium,” in Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis, R. Fayer, Ed., pp. 1–41, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  29. J.-R. Yu, J.-K. Lee, M. Seo et al., “Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis among the villagers and domestic animals in several rural areas of Korea,” The Korean Journal of Parasitology, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. Siwila, I. G. K. Phiri, J. Vercruysse et al., “Asymptomatic cryptosporidiosis in Zambian dairy farm workers and their household members,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 101, no. 7, pp. 733–734, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus