Table of Contents
Epidemiology Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 9783704, 7 pages
Research Article

Association of Breastfeeding and the Federal Poverty Level: National Survey of Family Growth, 2011–2013

1Department of Dental Practice and Rural Health, School of Dentistry, West Virginia University, 104A Health Sciences Center Addition, P.O. Box 9448, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
2Department of Pharmaceutical Systems and Policy, West Virginia University School of Pharmacy, Robert C. Byrd Health Sciences Center (North), P.O. Box 9510, Morgantown, WV 26506-9510, USA
3West Virginia University Department of Psychology, 53 Campus Drive, P.O. Box 6040, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
4University of North Carolina Charlotte School of Nursing, CHHS-420, Charlotte, NC 28223, USA

Received 1 December 2015; Revised 29 January 2016; Accepted 15 February 2016

Academic Editor: Suminori Kono

Copyright © 2016 R. Constance Wiener et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Breastfeeding is strongly endorsed in the Healthy People 2020 goals; however, there remain many disparities in breastfeeding prevalence. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between breastfeeding and the Federal Poverty Level in the United States. Data from 5,397 women in the National Survey of Family Growth 2011–2013 survey were included in this study. The data were analyzed for descriptive features and logistic regressions of the Federal Poverty Level on breastfeeding. There were 64.1% of women who reported breastfeeding. Over one-third (35.2%) of women reported having a household income of 0–99% of the Federal Poverty Level. There were 15.2% of women who reported an income of 400% and above the Federal Poverty Level. With statistical adjustment for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, parity, preterm birth, birth weight, insurance, and dwelling, the Federal Poverty Level was not significantly associated with breastfeeding. In this recent survey of mothers, Federal Poverty Level was not shown to be a significant factor in breastfeeding.