Figure 3: Theoretical mechanisms of etomidate effect on the epileptic activity. Astroc: astrocyte; pre-N: presinaptic neuron; post-N: postsinaptic neuron. (a) Reversal of Cl- potential. Here, represents GABA, white-square represents a channel, black-square represents NKCC1 (sodium-potassium chloride contransporter), white-bullet represents KCC2 (potasium-chloride contransporter), yellow-circle represents a chloride anion, and black-triangle represents etomidate. (b) Reduced re-uptake of glutamate by astrocytes through EAAT1 and 2 (Excitatory aminoacid transport) due to etomidate action through protein kinase A (PKA) pathways where black-bullet represents glutamate, blue-triangle represents etomidate, triangle represents EAAT 1 and 2, and square represents a glutamate channel.