Table of Contents
Epilepsy Research and Treatment
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 624519, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/624519
Review Article

Neuropathology of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

1Department of Pathology, London Health Sciences Centre, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada N6A 5A5
2Department of Pathology (Neuropathology), London Health Sciences Centre, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada N6A 5A5

Received 1 September 2011; Revised 20 January 2012; Accepted 7 February 2012

Academic Editor: Seyed M. Mirsattari

Copyright © 2012 Fahd Al Sufiani and Lee Cyn Ang. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Wiebe, “Epidemiology of temporal lobe epilepsy,” Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. S6–S10, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. L. Tassi, A. Meroni, F. Deleo et al., “Temporal lobe epilepsy: neuropathological and clinical correlations in 243 surgically treated patients,” Epileptic Disorders, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 281–292, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. I. Blümcke, M. Thom, and O. D. Wiestler, “Ammon's horn sclerosis: a maldevelopmental disorder associated with temporal lobe epilepsy,” Brain Pathology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 199–211, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. C. Lee, G. M. Kim, Y. J. Woo et al., “Pathogenic significance of neuronal migration disorders in temporal lobe epilepsy,” Human Pathology, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 643–648, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. Maher and R. S. McLachlan, “Febrile convulsions: is seizure duration the most important predictor of temporal lobe epilepsy?” Brain, vol. 118, no. 6, pp. 1521–1528, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. H.-G. Wieser, “Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis,” Epilepsia, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 695–714, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. M. Thom, “Neuropathological findings in epilepsy,” Current Diagnostic Pathology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 93–105, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. Eid, A. Williamson, T. S. W. Lee, O. A. Petroff, and N. C. De Lanerolle, “Glutamate and astrocytes—key players in human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy?” Epilepsia, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 42–52, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. R. Wyler, F. C. Dohan, J. B. Schweitzer, and A. D. Berry, “A grading system for mesial temporal pathology (hippocampal sclerosis) from anterior emporal lobectomy,” Journal of Epilepsy, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 220–225, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. I. Blümcke, E. Pauli, H. Clusmann et al., “A new clinico-pathological classification system for mesial temporal sclerosis,” Acta Neuropathologica, vol. 113, no. 3, pp. 235–244, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Thom, S. Eriksson, L. Martinian et al., “Temporal lobe sclerosis associated with hippocampal sclerosis in temporal lobe epilepsy: neuropathological features,” Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, vol. 68, no. 8, pp. 928–938, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. H. Margerison and J. A. N. Corsellis, “Epilepsy and the temporal lobes: a clinical, electroencephalographic and neuropathological study of the brain in epilepsy, with particular reference to the temporal lobes,” Brain, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 499–530, 1966. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. L. P. Hudson, D. G. Munoz, L. Miller, R. S. McLachlan, J. P. Girvin, and W. T. Blume, “Amygdaloid sclerosis in temporal lobe epilepsy,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 622–631, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. Engel Jr., W. J. Brown, and D. E. Kuhl, “Pathological findings underlying focal temporal lobe hypometabolism in partial epilepsy,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 518–528, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  15. D. M. Yilmazer-Hanke, H. K. Wolf, J. Schramm, C. E. Elger, O. D. Wiestler, and I. Blümcke, “Subregional pathology of the amygdala complex and entorhinal region in surgical specimens from patients with pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy,” Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, vol. 59, no. 10, pp. 907–920, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. F. Levesque, N. Nakasato, H. V. Vinters, and T. L. Babb, “Surgical treatment of limbic epilepsy associated with extrahippocampal lesions: the problem of dual pathology,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 364–370, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. A. Raymond, D. R. Fish, J. M. Stevens, M. J. Cook, S. M. Sisodiya, and S. D. Shorvon, “Association of hippocampal sclerosis with cortical dysgenesis in patients with epilepsy,” Neurology, vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 1841–1845, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. F. Cendes, M. J. Cook, C. Watson et al., “Frequency and characteristics of dual pathology in patients with lesional epilepsy,” Neurology, vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 2058–2064, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. L. M. Li, F. Cendes, F. Andermann et al., “Surgical outcome in patients with epilepsy and dual pathology,” Brain, vol. 122, no. 5, pp. 799–805, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. M. Mirsattari, D. A. Steven, J. Keith, and R. R. Hammond, “Pathophysiological implications of focal cortical dysplasia of end folium for hippocampal sclerosis,” Epilepsy Research, vol. 84, no. 2-3, pp. 268–272, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. I. Blümcke, H. V. Vinters, D. Armstrong, E. Aronica, M. Thom, and R. Spreafico, “Malformations of cortical development and epilepsies: neuropathological findings with emphasis on focal cortical dysplasia,” Epileptic Disorders, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 181–193, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. J. Barkovich, R. I. Kuzniecky, G. D. Jackson, R. Guerrini, and W. B. Dobyns, “A developmental and genetic classification for malformations of cortical development,” Neurology, vol. 65, no. 12, pp. 1873–1887, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. Y. J. Jiang, L.-C. Ang, and W. T. Blume, “Extent of EEG epileptiform pattern distribution in "focal" cortical dysplasia,” Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 309–311, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. D. H. Lee, F. Q. Gao, J. M. Rogers et al., “MR in temporal lobe epilepsy: analysis with pathologic confirmation,” American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 19–27, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. B. Pasquier, M. Péoch'h, B. Fabre-Bocquentin et al., “Surgical pathology of drug-resistant partial epilepsy: a 10-year-experience with a series of 327 consecutive resections,” Epileptic Disorders, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 99–119, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. V. Salanova, O. Markand, and R. Worth, “Temporal lobe epilepsy: analysis of patients with dual pathology,” Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, vol. 109, no. 2, pp. 126–131, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. Y. S. Piao, D. H. Lu, L. Chen et al., “Neuropathological findings in intractable epilepsy: 435 Chinese cases,” Brain Pathology, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 902–908, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. A. Prayson, R. Spreafico, and H. V. Vinters, “Pathologic characteristics of the cortical dysplasias,” Neurosurgery Clinics of North America, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 17–25, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. R. S. Fisher and D. Blum, “Epilepsy surgery where there is dual pathology,” Lancet, vol. 354, no. 9175, pp. 267–268, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. I. Blümcke and A. Mühlebner, “Neuropathological work-up of focal cortical dysplasias using the new ILAE consensus classification system—practical guideline article invited by the Euro-CNS Research committee,” Clinical Neuropathology, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 164–177, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. A. Palmini, I. Najm, G. Avanzini et al., “Terminology and classification of the cortical dysplasias,” Neurology, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. S2–S8, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. W. A. Chamberlain, M. L. Cohen, K. A. Gyure et al., “Interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility in focal cortical dysplasia (malformations of cortical development),” Epilepsia, vol. 50, no. 12, pp. 2593–2598, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. L. Ding, G. W. Van Hoesen, M. D. Cassell, and A. Poremba, “Parcellation of human temporal polar cortex: a combined analysis of multiple cytoarchitectonic, chemoarchitectonic, and pathological markers,” Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 514, no. 6, pp. 595–623, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. I. Blümcke, M. Thom, E. Aronica et al., “The clinicopathologic spectrum of focal cortical dysplasias: a consensus classification proposed by an ad hoc Task Force of the ILAE Diagnostic Methods Commission,” Epilepsia, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 158–174, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. S. Sisodiya, “Epilepsy: the new order-classifying focal cortical dysplasias,” Nature Reviews Neurology, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 129–130, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. L. Tassi, B. Pasquier, L. Minotti et al., “Cortical dysplasia: electroclinical, imaging, and neuropathologic study of 13 patients,” Epilepsia, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 1112–1123, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. F. Al Sufiani, Y. Jiang, W. T. Blume, and L. Ang, “Institutional review of epilepsy resection specimens with focal cortical dysplasia,” The Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, vol. 39, no. 1, p. 106, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  38. M. Thom, S. Sisodiya, W. Harkness, and F. Scaravilli, “Microdysgenesis in temporal lobe epilepsy: a quantitative and immunohistochemical study of white matter neurones,” Brain, vol. 124, no. 11, pp. 2299–2309, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. H. Eriksson, K. Malmgren, and C. Nordborg, “Microdysgenesis in epilepsy,” Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, vol. 111, no. 5, pp. 279–290, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. M. Rojiani, J. A. Emery, K. J. Anderson, and J. K. Massey, “Distribution of heterotopic neurons in normal hemispheric white matter: a morphometric analysis,” Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 178–183, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. A. Emery, S. N. Roper, and A. M. Rojiani, “White matter neuronal heterotopia in temporal lobe epilepsy: a morphometric and immunohistochemical study,” Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, vol. 56, no. 12, pp. 1276–1282, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. B. S. Kasper, H. Stefan, M. Buchfelder, and W. Paulus, “Temporal lobe microdysgenesis in epilepsy versus control brains,” Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 22–28, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. R. Spreafico and I. Blümcke, “Focal Cortical Dysplasias: clinical implication of neuropathological classification systems,” Acta Neuropathologica, vol. 120, no. 3, pp. 359–367, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. Wiebe, D. G. Munoz, S. Smith, and L. Donald H, “Meningioangiomatosis. A comprehensive analysis of clinical and laboratory features,” Brain, vol. 122, no. 4, pp. 709–726, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. R. A. Prayson, “Meningioangiomatosis: a clinicopathologic study including MIB1 immunoreactivity,” Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 119, no. 11, pp. 1061–1064, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. A. Perry, B. Kurtkaya-Yapicier, B. W. Scheithauer et al., “Insights into meningioangiomatosis with without meningioma: a clinicopathologic end genetic series of 24 cases with review of the literature,” Brain Pathology, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 55–65, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. W. A. Hauser and J. P. Mohr, “Editorial: seizures, epilepsy, and vascular malformations,” Neurology, vol. 76, no. 18, pp. 1540–1541, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. K. Upchurch, J. M. Stern, N. Salamon et al., “Epileptogenic temporal cavernous malformations: operative strategies and postoperative seizure outcomes,” Seizure, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 120–128, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. E. E. Volk and R. A. Prayson, “Hamartomas in the setting of chronic epilepsy: a clinicopathologic study of 13 cases,” Human Pathology, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 227–232, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. I. Blümcke, M. Löbach, H. K. Wolf, and O. D. Wiestler, “Evidence for developmental precursor lesions in epilepsy-associated glioneuronal tumors,” Microscopy Research and Technique, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 53–58, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. A.-C. Yang, K. Zhang, J.-G. Zhang et al., “Temporal lobe epilepsy with hypothalamic hamartoma: a rare case,” Chinese Medical Journal, vol. 124, no. 7, pp. 1114–1117, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. H. K. Wolf, M. G. Campos, J. Zentner et al., “Surgical pathology of temporal lobe epilepsy. Experience with 216 cases,” Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 499–506, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. S. Uliel-Sibony, U. Kramer, I. Fried, A. Fattal-Valevski, and S. Constantini, “Pediatric temporal low-grade glial tumors: epilepsy outcome following resection in 48 children,” Child's Nervous System, vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 1413–1418, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. A. Furuta, H. Takahashi, F. Ikuta, K. Onda, N. Takeda, and R. Tanaka, “Temporal lobe tumor demonstrating ganglioglioma and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma components. Case report,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 143–147, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. Y. Shimbo, H. Takahashi, M. Hayano, T. Kumagai, and S. Kameyama, “Temporal lobe lesion demonstrating features of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor and ganglioglioma: a transitional form?” Clinical Neuropathology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 65–68, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. R. A. Prayson, J. Fong, and I. Najm, “Coexistent pathology in chronic epilepsy patients with neoplasms,” Modern Pathology, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 1097–1103, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. U. P. Kalyan-Raman and W. C. Olivero, “Ganglioglioma: a correlative clinicopathological and radiological study of ten surgically treated cases with follow-up,” Neurosurgery, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 428–433, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. I. Blümcke, K. Giencke, E. Wardelmann et al., “The CD34 epitope is expressed in neoplastic and malformative lesions associated with chronic, focal epilepsies,” Acta Neuropathologica, vol. 97, no. 5, pp. 481–490, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. I. Blümcke and O. D. Wiestler, “Gangliogliomas: an intriguing tumor entity associated with focal epilepsies,” Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 575–584, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. R. Demarchi, S. Abu-Abed, D. Munoz, and R. Loch MacDonald, “Malignant ganglioglioma: case report and review of literature,” Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol. 101, no. 2, pp. 311–318, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  61. M. Thom, A. Toma, S. An et al., “One hundred and one dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors: an adult epilepsy series with immunohistochemical, molecular genetic, and clinical correlations and a review of the literature,” Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, vol. 70, no. 10, pp. 859–878, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  62. R. A. Prayson and M. L. Estes, “Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor,” American Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 398–401, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. A. R. Campos, H. Clusmann, M. Von Lehe et al., “Simple and complex dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNT) variants: clinical profile, MRI, and histopathology,” Neuroradiology, vol. 51, no. 7, pp. 433–443, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. T. N. Chandrashekhar, A. Mahadevan, S. Vani et al., “Pathological spectrum of neuronal/glioneuronal tumors from a tertiary referral neurological Institute,” Neuropathology, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  65. R. R. Hammond, N. Duggal, J. M. J. Woulfe, and J. P. Girvin, “Malignant transformation of a dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor: case report,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 722–725, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. E. J. Rushing, L. D. Thompson, and H. Mena, “Malignant transformation of a dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor after radiation and chemotherapy,” Annals of Diagnostic Pathology, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 240–244, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. R. A. Prayson, “Papillary glioneuronal tumor,” Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 124, no. 12, pp. 1820–1823, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. J. Pimentel, C. Barroso, J. Miguens, C. Firmo, and J. L. Antunes, “Papillary glioneuronal tumor—prognostic value of the extension of surgical resection,” Clinical Neuropathology, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 287–294, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. J. J. Kepes, L. J. Rubinstein, and L. F. Eng, “Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma: a distinctive meningocerebral glioma of young subjects with relatively favorable prognosis. A study of 12 cases,” Cancer, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 1839–1852, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. C. Giannini, B. W. Scheithauer, M. B. S. Lopes, T. Hirose, J. M. Kros, and S. R. VandenBerg, “Immunophenotype of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma,” American Journal of Surgical Pathology, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 479–485, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. D. J. Wallace, R. W. Byrne, D. Ruban, E. J. Cochran, D. Roh, and W. W. Whisler, “Temporal lobe pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma and chronic epilepsy: long-term surgical outcomes,” Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, vol. 113, no. 10, pp. 918–922, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  72. C. Bayindir, N. Balak, A. Karasu, and D. Kasaroglu, “Anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma,” Child's Nervous System, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 50–56, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. R. A. Prayson and H. H. Morris, “Anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma,” Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 122, no. 12, pp. 1082–1086, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. G. A. Alexiou, M. Moschovi, K. Stefanaki, C. Prodromou, G. Sfakianos, and N. Prodromou, “Malignant progression of a pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma in a child,” Neuropediatrics, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 69–71, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. H. Martinez-Diaz, B. K. Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, S. Z. Powell, and A. T. Yachnis, “Giant cell glioblastoma and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma show different immunohistochemical profiles for neuronal antigens and p53 but share reactivity for class III β-tubulin,” Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 127, no. 9, pp. 1187–1191, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. M. Wang, T. Tihan, A. M. Rojiani et al., “Monomorphous angiocentric glioma: a distinctive epileptogenic neoplasm with features of infiltrating astrocytoma and ependymoma,” Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, vol. 64, no. 10, pp. 875–881, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. M. Preusser, A. Hoischen, K. Novak et al., “Angiocentric glioma: report of clinico-pathologic and genetic findings in 8 cases,” American Journal of Surgical Pathology, vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 1709–1718, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. J. Schramm, C. Luyken, H. Urbach, R. Fimmers, and I. Blümcke, “Evidence for a clinically distinct new subtype of grade II astrocytomas in patients with long-term epilepsy,” Neurosurgery, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 340–347, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. I. Blümcke, C. Luyken, H. Urbach, J. Schramm, and O. D. Wiestler, “An isomorphic subtype of long-term epilepsy-associated astrocytomas associated with benign prognosis,” Acta Neuropathologica, vol. 107, no. 5, pp. 381–388, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. J. Englander, T. Bushnik, T. T. Duong et al., “Analyzing risk factors for late posttraumatic seizures: a prospective, multicenter investigation,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 365–373, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. R. D'Ambrosio and E. Perucca, “Epilepsy after head injury,” Current Opinion in Neurology, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 731–735, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. H. Payan, M. Toga, and M. Bérard-Badier, “The pathology of post-traumatic epilepsies,” Epilepsia, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 81–94, 1970. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. R. P. Lesser, H. Luders, D. S. Dinner, and H. H. Morris, “Epileptic seizures due to thrombotic and embolic cerebrovascular disease in older patients,” Epilepsia, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 622–630, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. C. F. Bladin and J. W. Norris, “Stroke, seizures/epilepsy,” in Primer on Cerebrovascular Diseases, K. M. A. Welch, L. R. Caplan, D. J. Reis, B. K. Siesjo, and W. Bryce, Eds., pp. 355–360, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  85. M. A. Farrell, O. Droogan, D. Lenard Secor, V. Poukens, B. Quinn, and H. V. Vinters, “Chronic encephalitis associated with epilepsy: immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies,” Acta Neuropathologica, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 313–321, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. S. Duishanbai, D. Jiafu, H. Guo et al., “Intracranial hydatid cyst in children: report of 30 cases,” Child's Nervous System, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 821–827, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. M. M. Bianchin, T. R. Velasco, L. Wichert-Ana, O. M. Takayanagui, J. P. Leite, and A. C. Sakamoto, “How frequent is the association of neurocysticercosis and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis?” Epilepsia, vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 2359–2360, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. A. Vezzani and T. Granata, “Brain inflammation in epilepsy: experimental and clinical evidence,” Epilepsia, vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 1724–1743, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. E. Aronica and P. B. Crino, “Inflammation in epilepsy: clinical observations,” Epilepsia, vol. 52, supplement 3, pp. 26–32, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  90. R. A. Prayson and J. L. Frater, “Rasmussen encephalitis: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of seven patients,” American Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 117, no. 5, pp. 776–782, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. C. A. Pardo, E. P. G. Vining, L. Guo, R. L. Skolasky, B. S. Carson, and J. M. Freeman, “The Pathology of Rasmussen Syndrome: stages of cortical involvement and neuropathological studies in 45 hemispherectomies,” Epilepsia, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 516–526, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. C. G. Bien, J. Bauer, T. L. Deckwerth et al., “Destruction of neurons by cytotoxic T cells: a new pathogenic mechanism in Rasmussen's encephalitis,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 311–318, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus