Figure 3: Options for the management of patients with CSWS. Options for chronic management are high-dose benzodiazepines, standard antiepileptic drugs in different combinations, and corticosteroids and immune-modulating agents. These options are considered as first choices by different authors, although standard antiepileptic drugs are generally used before the recognition of CSWS. Epilepsy surgery is reserved for few selected refractory cases. Legend: ACTH: adrenocorticotrophic hormone. CLB: clobazam. DZP: diazepam. ETX: ethosuximide. LEV: levetiracetam. LTG: lamotrigine. LZP: lorazepam. MPRD: methylprednisolone. MST: multiple subpial transection. SUL: sulthiame. VPA: valproate.