Research Article | Open Access
Metastable Nanosized Diamond Formation from Fluid Phase
There is evidence that part of kimberlitic microdiamonds was formed at low P-T parameters corresponding to graphite stability. Microdiamonds were also discovered in ultramafic, volcanic, and different metamorphic crust rocks formed at low P-T parameters. The formation of these diamonds is probably caused by introduction of metasomatic fluids at metastable P-T parameters. In our experiments nanosized (70–80 nm) diamonds were synthesized at earth crust P-T parameters from fluid phase. Their presence was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and electronic microscopy methods.
- Z. V. Spetsius, “Two generation of diamonds in eclogite xenoliths from Yakutia,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Kimberlite Conference, J. J. Gurney, L. G. Gurney, M. D. Pascoe, and S. H. Richardson, Eds., vol. 2, pp. 823–828, Cape Town, South Africa, 1999.
- N. A. Shilo, F. V. Kaminsky, L. D. Lavrova et al., “First foundation of diamond in ultramafic rocks of Kamchatka,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 248, no. 5, pp. 1211–1214, 1979.
- R. Capdevila, N. Arndt, J. Letendre, and J.-F. Sauvage, “Diamonds in volcaniclastic komatiite from French Guiana,” Nature, vol. 399, no. 6735, pp. 456–458, 1999.
- R. Wirth and A. Rocholl, “Nanocrystalline diamonds from the Earth's mantle underneaath Hawaii,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 211, pp. 357–362, 2003.
- M. I. Novgorodova and A. V. Rasskazov, “High-pressure carbon mineral phase formation as a result of heat explosion at shift transformation of graphite,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 322, no. 2, pp. 379–381, 1992.
- L. F. Dobrzhinetskaya, E. A. Eide, R. B. Larsen et al., “Microdiamond in high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Western Gneiss region, Norway,” Geology, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 597–600, 1995.
- R. B. Larsen, E. A. Eide, and E. A. J. Burke, “Evolution of metamorphic volatile during exhumation of microdimond-bearing granulites in the Western Gneiss Region, Norway,” Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, vol. 133, no. 1-2, pp. 106–121, 1998.
- H. J. Massone, “A new occurence of microdiamonds in quartzofeldspatic rocks of the Saxonian Erzgebirge, Germany, and their metamorphic evolution,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Kimberlite Confertence, J. J. Gurney, L. G. Gurney, M. D. Pascoe, and S. H. Richardson, Eds., vol. 2, pp. 533–539, Cape Town, South Africa, 1999.
- A. I. Okay, “Petrology of a diamond and coesite-bearing metamorphic terrain: dabie Shan, China,” European Journal of Mineralogy, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 659–675, 1993.
- O. M. Rozen, U. M. Zorin, and A. A. Zayachkovsky, “Diamond foundation in connection of precembrian eclogites of Kokchetave massive,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 203, no. 3, pp. 674–676, 1972.
- N. V. Sobolev and V. S. Shatsky, “Diamond inclusions in garnets from metamorphic rocks: a new environment for diamond formation,” Nature, vol. 343, no. 6260, pp. 742–746, 1990.
- V. T. Dubinchuk, A. V. Kochenov, V. F. Pen'kov, G. A. Sidorenko, and V. A. Uspenski, “New formations in the organic matter of sidementary rock as a result of radiation,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 231, no. 4, pp. 973–976, 1976 (Russian).
- M. I. Novgorodova, R. G. Usupov, and M. T. Dmitrieva, “Cubic carbide of silicium in the integrowing with graphite and diamond from mumie,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 277, no. 5, pp. 1222–1227, 1984.
- V. A. Pechnikov and F. V. Kaminsky, “Diamond potential of metamorphic rocks in the Kokchetav Massif, northern Kazakhstan,” European Journal of Mineralogy, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 395–413, 2008.
- K. De Corte, P. Cartigny, V. S. Shatsky, P. De Paepe, M. V. Sobolev, and M. Jovay, “Characteristics of microdiamond from UHPM rocks of the Kokchetav massif (Kazakhstan),” in Proceedings of the 7th International Kimberlite Confertence, J. J. Gurney, L. G. Gurney, M. D. Pascoe, and S. H. Richardson,, Eds., vol. 2, pp. 174–182, Cape Town, South Africa, 1999.
- K. De Corte, P. Cartigny, V. S. Shatsky, N. V. Sobolev, and M. Javoy, “Evidence of fluid inclusions in metamorphic microdiamonds from the Kokchetav massif, northern Kazakhstan,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 62, no. 23-24, pp. 3765–3773, 1998.
- A. V. Korsakov and V. S. Shatsky, “Origin of graphite-coated diamonds from ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks,” Doklady Earth Sciences, vol. 399, no. 8, pp. 1160–1163, 2004.
- P. Catigny, K. De Corte, V. S. Shatsky, M. Ader, P. De Paepe, N. V. Sobolev, and M. Javoy, “The origin and formation of metamorphic microdiamonds from the Kokchetav massif, Kazakhstan: a nitrogen and carbon isotopic study,” Chemical Geology, vol. 176, no. 1–4, pp. 265–281, 2001.
- D. Elwell and H. J. Scheel, Crystal Growth from High Temperature Solutions, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1975.
- B. V. Deryagin and D. V. Fedoseev, Growth of Diamond and Graphite from the Gas Phase, Nauka, Moscow, Russia, 1977.
- S. P. Chauhan, J. C. Angus, and N. C. Gardner, “Kinetics of carbon deposition on diamond powder,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 4746–4754, 1976.
- V. P. Varnin, B. V. Deryagin, D. V. Fedoseev, I. G. Teremetskaya, and A. N. Hodan, “Characteristic properties of polycrystalline diamond films growth from the gas phase,” Krystallographiya, vol. 22, pp. 893–895, 1977 (Russian).
- P. Badziag, W. S. Verwoerd, W. P. Ellis, and N. R. Greiner, “Nanometre-sized diamonds are more stable than graphite,” Nature, vol. 343, no. 6255, pp. 244–245, 1990.
- S. K. Simakov, “Thermodynamic estimation of oxygen-hydrogen conditions influence on diamond and graphite critical nucleus formation at processes of methane destruction at low pressures,” Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 69, pp. 3460–3347, 1995 (Russian).
- D. V. Fedoseev, B. V. Deryagin, I. G. Varshavskaya, and A. S. Semenova-Tyan-Shanskaya, Diamond Crystallization, Nauka, Moscow, Russia, 1984.
- S. K. Simakov, “Physsico-chemical aspects of diamond-bearing eclogite formation in the upper mantle and Earth crust rocks,” (Magadan, Russia), 187 pages, 2003.
- A. P. Rudenko, I. I. Kulakova, and V. I. Skvortsova, “Chemical diamond synthesis. Aspects of general theory,” Russian Chemical Review, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 99–117, 1993 (Russian).
- P. K. Bachmann, D. Leers, and H. Lydtin, “Towards a general concept of diamond chemical vapour deposition,” Diamond and Related Materials, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 1991.
- W. Kaiser and W. L. Bond, “Nitrogen, a major impurity in common type I diamond,” Physical Review, vol. 115, no. 4, pp. 857–863, 1959.
- D. F. Korolev, T. A. Uzvarin, G. P. Klientova, and F. V. Bazhenova, “Experimental information about the diamond crystallization in silicate-carbonate system,” in Synthes of Minerals and Experimental Investigation, pp. 150–153, NEDRA, Moscow, Russia, 1981.
- S. K. Simakov, “Possibility of metastable diamond formation from fluids in continental crust conditions,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 278, no. 4, pp. 953–957, 1984 (Russian).
- E. V. Sobolev, S. V. Lenskaya, N. D. Samoilenko, and V. S. Sobolev, “Some physical properties of diamonds from Yakutian eclogite,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 168, no. 5, pp. 1151–1153, 1966 (Russian).
- K. S. Finnie, D. Fisher, W. L. Griffin, J. W. Harris, and N. V. Sobolev, “Nitrogen aggregation in metamorphic diamonds from Kazakhstan,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 58, no. 23, pp. 5173–5177, 1994.
- S. K. Simakov, A. E. Kalmykov, L. M. Sorokin et al., “Chaoite formation from carbon-bearing fluid at low PT parameters,” Doklady Earth Sciences A, vol. 399, no. 9, pp. 1289–1290, 2004.
- S. K. Simakov, V. T. Dubinchuk, and M. V. Baidakova, “Synthesis of nanosize diamond and diamondlike phases at lower temperatures and pressures,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on New Diamond and Nano Carbons (NDNC '07), Osaka, Japan, May 2007, Abstract Book no. 279.
Copyright © 2010 S. K. Simakov et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.