Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Genetics Research International
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 8348450, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8348450
Research Article

Procaine Induces Epigenetic Changes in HCT116 Colon Cancer Cells

1College of Biotechnology, Misr University for Science and Technology, Giza, Egypt
2Center of Research and Development, Misr University for Science and Technology, Giza, Egypt

Received 27 June 2016; Revised 25 September 2016; Accepted 29 September 2016

Academic Editor: Norman A. Doggett

Copyright © 2016 Hussein Sabit et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. López-Gómez, E. Malmierca, M. de Górgolas, and E. Casado, “Cancer in developing countries: the next most preventable pandemic. The global problem of cancer,” Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 117–122, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. K. Esposito, P. Chiodini, A. Capuano et al., “Colorectal cancer association with metabolic syndrome and its components: a systematic review with meta-analysis,” Endocrine, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 634–647, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. Gado, B. Ebeid, A. Abdelmohsen, and A. Axon, “Colorectal cancer in Egypt is commoner in young people: is this cause for alarm?” Alexandria Journal of Medicine, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 197–201, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. W. Zheng, L. Zhao, G. Wang et al., “Promoter methylation and expression of RASSF1A genes as predictors of disease progression in colorectal cancer,” International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 2027–2036, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  5. R. Cacabelos, “Epigenetic biomarkers in cancer,” Clinical & Medical Biochemistry, vol. 1, no. 1, article e101, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. E. Sakai, A. Nakajima, and A. Kaneda, “Accumulation of aberrant DNA methylation during colorectal cancer development,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 978–987, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. Michailidi, S. Theocharis, G. Tsourouflis et al., “Expression and promoter methylation status of hMLH1, MGMT, APC, and CDH1 genes in patients with colon adenocarcinoma,” Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 240, no. 12, pp. 1599–1605, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. A. Jones, “How DNA methylation organizes the cancer epigenome,” in Proceedings of the AACR Special Conference on Chromatin and Epigenetics in Cancer, Atlanta, Ga, USA, September 2015.
  9. S. Yin, W. Wei, F. Jian, and N. Yang, “Therapeutic applications of herbal medicines for cancer patients,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2013, 15 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. S. P. Kumar and V. Sisodia, “Chemotherapy-induced or chemotherapy-associated? Does physical therapy play a role in prevention and/or management of peripheral neurotoxicity and neuropathy?” Indian Journal of Palliative Care, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 77–78, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. Durant, P. Clevenbergh, P. Halfon et al., “Drug-resistance genotyping in HIV-1 therapy: the VIRADAPT randomised controlled trial,” Lancet, vol. 353, no. 9171, pp. 2195–2199, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. P. E. A. da Silva and J. C. Palomino, “Molecular basis and mechanisms of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: classical and new drugs,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 66, no. 7, Article ID dkr173, pp. 1417–1430, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. Borst, J. Jonkers, and S. Rottenberg, “What makes tumors multidrug resistant?” Cell Cycle, vol. 6, no. 22, pp. 2782–2787, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. L. Xie, L. Xie, S. L. Kinnings, and P. E. Bourne, “Novel computational approaches to polypharmacology as a means to define responses to individual drugs,” Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol. 52, pp. 361–379, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. Dhivya, N. Khandelwal, S. K. Abraham, and K. Premkumar, “Impact of anthocyanidins on mitoxantrone-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity: an in vitro and in vivo analysis,” Integrative Cancer Therapies, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. Y. R. Saadat, N. Saeidi, S. Z. Vahed, A. Barzegari, and J. Barar, “An update to DNA ladder assay for apoptosis detection,” BioImpacts, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 25–28, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Flis, A. Gnyszka, and K. Flis, “DNA methyltransferase inhibitors improve the effect of chemotherapeutic agents in SW48 and HT-29 colorectal cancer cells,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 3, Article ID e92305, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. M.-K. Ng and J. Yu, “Promoter hypermethylation of tumour suppressor genes as potential biomarkers in colorectal cancer,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 2472–2496, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. G. Rivaa, S. Baronchellia, L. Paolettaa et al., “In vitro anticancer drug test: a new method emerges from the model of glioma stem cells,” Toxicology Reports 1, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  20. M. H. Lee, J. Y. Yang, Y. Cho et al., “Menadione induces apoptosis in a gastric cancer cell line mediated by down-regulation of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis,” International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 2437–2443, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  21. J. Lin, H.-J. Yao, and R.-Y. Li, “Bakuchiol inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells,” Biomedical Research, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 181–185, 2016. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. N. Andre and W. Schmiegel, “Chemoradiotherapy for colorectal cancer,” Gut, vol. 54, no. 8, pp. 1194–1202, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. Nautiyal, S. S. Kanwar, Y. Yu, and A. P. N. Majumdar, “Combination of dasatinib and curcumin eliminates chemo-resistant colon cancer cells,” Journal of Molecular Signaling, vol. 6, article 7, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. Villar-Garea, M. F. Fraga, J. Espada, and M. Esteller, “Procaine is a DNA-demethylating agent with growth-inhibitory effects in human cancer cells,” Cancer Research, vol. 63, no. 16, pp. 4984–4989, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. B. Brueckner, R. G. Boy, P. Siedlecki et al., “Epigenetic reactivation of tumor suppressor genes by a novel small-molecule inhibitor of human DNA methyltransferases,” Cancer Research, vol. 65, no. 14, pp. 6305–6311, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. Stresemann, B. Brueckner, T. Musch, H. Stopper, and F. Lyko, “Functional diversity of DNA methyltransferase inhibitors in human cancer cell lines,” Cancer Research, vol. 66, no. 5, pp. 2794–2800, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Sachan and M. Kaur, “Epigenetic modifications: therapeutic potential in cancer,” Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 526–539, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Rodríguez-Paredes and M. Esteller, “Cancer epigenetics reaches mainstream oncology,” Nature Medicine, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 330–339, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. Y. K. Walia and V. Sharma, “Role of HDACs and DNMTs in cancer therapy: a review,” Asian Journal of Advanced Basic Sciences, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 62–78, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  30. M. Ushijima, Y. Ogata, H. Tsuda, Y. Akagi, K. Matono, and K. Shirouzu, “Demethylation effect of the antineoplaston AS2-1 on genes in colon cancer cells,” Oncology Reports, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 19–26, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. R. Burzynski, T. J. Janicki, G. S. Burzynski, and S. Brookman, “Preliminary findings on the use of targeted therapy in combination with sodium phenylbutyrate in colorectal cancer after failure of second-line therapy—a potential strategy for improved survival,” Journal of Cancer Therapy, vol. 5, no. 13, pp. 1270–1288, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. S. Amatori, I. Bagaloni, B. Donati, and M. Fanelli, “DNA demethylating antineoplastic strategies: a comparative point of view,” Genes and Cancer, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 197–209, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. S. Kim, J. Lee, and D. Sidransky, “DNA methylation markers in colorectal cancer,” Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 181–206, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. C. A. Townsley, P. Major, L. L. Siu et al., “Phase II study of erlotinib (OSI-774) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 94, no. 8, pp. 1136–1143, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. M. Mitchell, J. P. Ross, H. R. Drew et al., “A panel of genes methylated with high frequency in colorectal cancer,” BMC Cancer, vol. 14, no. 1, article 54, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. D. Lai, S. Visser-Grieve, and X. Yang, “Tumour suppressor genes in chemotherapeutic drug response,” Bioscience Reports, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 361–374, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J.-H. Xu, S.-L. Hu, G.-D. Shen, and G. Shen, “Tumor suppressor genes and their underlying interactions in paclitaxel resistance in cancer therapy,” Cancer Cell International, vol. 16, article 13, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. L. Gao, K. Huang, D.-S. Jiang et al., “Novel role for caspase-activated DNase in the regulation of pathological cardiac hypertrophy,” Hypertension, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 871–881, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. Nebbiosoa, V. Carafaa, R. Benedettia, and L. Altuccia, “Trials with ‘epigenetic’ drugs: an update,” Molecular Oncology, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 657–682, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  40. S. Witta, “Histone deacetylase inhibitors in non-small-cell lung cancer,” Journal of Thoracic Oncology, vol. 7, no. 12, supplement 5, pp. S404–S406, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. S. D. Fouse, R. P. Nagarajan, and J. F. Costello, “Genome-scale DNA methylation analysis,” Epigenomics, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 105–117, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. F. Lyko and R. Brown, “DNA methyltransferase inhibitors and the development of epigenetic cancer therapies,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 97, no. 20, pp. 1498–1506, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. A. Johnson, K. Akman, S. R. G. Calimport, D. Wuttke, A. Stolzing, and J. P. de Magalhães, “The role of DNA methylation in aging, rejuvenation, and age-related disease,” Rejuvenation Research, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 483–494, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. Y. Delpu, P. Cordelier, W. C. Cho, and J. Torrisani, “DNA methylation and cancer diagnosis,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 15029–15058, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. K. A. Kang, M. J. Piao, K. C. Kim et al., “Epigenetic modification of Nrf2 in 5-fluorouracil-resistant colon cancer cells: involvement of TET-dependent DNA demethylation,” Cell Death and Disease, vol. 5, no. 4, Article ID e1183, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. P. Wongtrakoongate, “Epigenetic therapy of cancer stem and progenitor cells by targeting DNA methylation machineries,” World Journal of Stem Cells, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 137–148, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. J. Ren, B. N. Singh, Q. Huang et al., “DNA hypermethylation as a chemotherapy target,” Cellular Signalling, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 1082–1093, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. D. Subramaniam, R. Thombre, A. Dhar, and S. Anant, “DNA methyltransferases: a novel target for prevention and therapy,” Frontiers in Oncology, vol. 4, article 80, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus